IAG Statutes

IAG Bylaws adopted by the IAG Council

at the XXVI IUGG General Assembly in Prague, Czech Republic, 2015
1. Definition of Terms

  1. Association components or components means Commissions, the Inter-commission Committee on Theory (ICCT), Services, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and the Com- munication and Outreach Branch (COB).
  2. Commissions represent major fields of activity in accordance with the IAG statutes. 
  3. Services collect and analyze observations to gene- rate products relevant to geodesy and other sciences and applications.
  4. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) works with the IAG Services to provide the geodetic expertise and infrastructure necessary for the monitoring of the Earth system and global change research.
  5. Association subcomponents or subcomponents are long-term or short-term structures created by IAG or one or more of its components.
  6. Long-term subcomponents comprise IAG Pro- jects (broad in scope and of high interest for the entire field of geodesy), Inter-commission Committees, Sub-commissions and Commission Projects which may remain established for several periods.
  7. Short-term subcomponents means Study Groups and Working Groups which are established for a maximum term of one period.
  8. Steering Committee means a group of elected or appointed IAG officers who review the work of Commissions, Inter-commission Committees (see 17), IAG Projects (see 16), and the Communication and Outreach Branch (see 18).
  9. Period means the interval of time between the closures of two successive IAG General Assemblies.
2. Responsibilities of Association Components

  1. The scientific work of the Association is performed by Commissions, Inter-commission Committees, IAG Projects, Services and the GGOS.
  2. The responsibilities of the Association components are determined by the Council on the recommendation of the Executive Committee.
  3. Components shall interact with each other where their activities are inter-related.
  4. Each component may set up subcomponents and is responsible for the activities of those subcomponents.
3. General Responsibilities of Component Presidents or Chairs, and Steering Committees

  1. Each component shall have a President or Chair who will lead a Steering Committee.
  2. The component President or Chair is responsible for the scientific development within the compo- nent's field of interest. The component President or Chair shall:
    1. coordinate the work of the subcomponents;
    2. keep the officers of the component as well as he Bureau informed of the component's activities, on an annual basis;
    3. collect reports of the subcomponents two months before each IAG General and Scientific Assembly for publication in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie";
    4. receive suggestions for new subcomponents, and suggestions for continuation of existing ones; and
    5. recommend changes to subcomponents to the IAG Executive Committee for approval.
  3. The component steering committee shall meet at least once per year and at least once during each
  4. IAG General Assembly.
  5. The component steering committee shall inform the IAG Secretary General about all relevant issues.
    1. the activities of the subcomponents over the past period;
    2. the structure of the subcomponents; and
    3. the programs for the forthcoming period for those subcomponents that will be recom- mended for continuation.
  6. The component steering committee may organizescientific and organizational meetings and workshops provided that they are readily distinguished as being of a more limited scope than IAG Scientific symposia or IAG Sponsored Symposia as described in Bylaws 27 and 28.
4. Commission Responsibilities

Commissions shall promote the advancement of science, technology and international cooperation in their field. They establish the necessary links with sister disciplines and with the relevant Services. Commissions shall represent the Association in all scientific domains related to their field of geodesy.

5. Commission Steering Committee

  1. The Commission Steering Committee shall be set up at each IAG General Assembly following the election of the Association officers.
  2. The Steering Committee shall have the following voting members:
    1. Commission President.
    2. Commission Vice President.
    3. Chairs of the Sub-commissions and Commission Projects.
    4. Up to three representatives of the Services relevant to the work of the Commission.
    5. Up to two Members-at-Large to balance geo- graphical and member country representation.
6. Appointment of Commission Officers

  1. The Commission President shall be elected by the Council for one period without reappointment except where exceptional circumstances justify reappointment.
  2. The Commission Vice President shall be appointed by the IAG Executive Committee for one period without reappointment except where exceptional circumstances justify reappointment.
  3. Chairs of the Sub-commissions and Commission Projects shall be nominated by the Commission President and Vice President within two months following the General Assembly.
  4. The representatives of the Services shall be appointed by the Commission President and Vice President upon proposal of the Services.
  5. The Members-at-Large shall be nominated by the Commission President and Vice President within two months following the IAG General Assembly.
  6. The appointments of Members-at-Large and Chairs of Sub-commissions and Commission Projects take effect on approval of the nominations by the IAG Executive Committee.
7. Tasks of Commission Steering Committee

The Commission Steering Committee is subject to the general responsibilities of component steering committees in Bylaw 3(c), 3(d), 3(e), and 3(f) above. In particular, its tasks are to:
  1. Review the Commission's field of interests and objectives.
  2. Liaise with the other IAG commissions, the Inter- commission Committees, and with similar organizations outside the IAG, as appropriate.
  3. Foster active participation of young geodesists and geodesists from under-represented countries.
  4. Coordinate and review the work of its components and report at the time of the Scientific Assembly to the IAG Executive Committee on the progress and performance of the components.
  5. Encourage and organize Commission and inter- disciplinary symposia and/or sessions at major geodesy related international meetings.
  6. Maintain a Commission website and e-mail service.
  7. Nominate up to three editors for the Journal of Geodesy.
8. Current Commissions

On the coming into effect of these bylaws, there shall be four Commissions with areas of scientific respon- sibility as outlined below:

(1) Commission 1: Reference Frames

  1. Establishment, maintenance, improvement of he geodetic reference frames.
  2. Advanced terrestrial and space observation technique development for the above purposes.
  3. International collaboration for the definition and deployment of networks of terrestrially- based space geodetic observatories.
  4. Theory and coordination of astrometric observation for reference frame purposes.
  5. Collaboration with space geodesy/ reference frame related international services, agencies and organizations.

(2) Commission 2: Gravity Field

  1. Terrestrial, marine, and airborne gravimetry.
  2. Satellite gravity and altimetry observations.
  3. Gravity field modelling.
  4. Time-variable gravity field.
  5. Geoid determination.
  6. Satellite orbit modeling and determination.

(3) Commission 3: Earth Rotation and Geodynamics

  1. Earth orientation (Earth rotation, polar motion, nutation and precession).
  2. Earth tides.
  3. Tectonics and crustal deformation.
  4. Sea surface topography and sea level changes.
  5. Planetary and lunar dynamics.
  6. Effects of the Earth's fluid layers (e.g., post glacial rebound, loading).

(4) Commission 4: Positioning and Applications

  1. Terrestrial and satellite-based positioning systems development, including sensor and information fusion.
  2. Navigation and guidance of platforms.
  3. Interferometric laser and radar applications (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar).
  4. Applications of geodetic positioning using three dimensional geodetic networks (passive and active networks), including monitoring of deformations.
  5. Applications of geodesy to engineering.
  6. Atmospheric investigations using space geodetic techniques.
9. Commission Subcomponents and Joint Subcomponents

  1. Commission Subcomponents are Sub-commis-sions, Commission Projects, Study Groups, andWorking Groups, which all belong to one com-mission.
  2. If more than one component is involved in a subcomponent, the term joint subcomponent will be used, e.g. Joint Sub-commission, Joint Commission Project, Joint Study Group, Joint Working Group.

10. Sub-commissions and Joint Sub-commissions

  1. A Sub-commission may be set up for topics where the Commission plays a leading or coordinating role.
  2. Where a topic relates to the scientific responsibili- ties of more than one IAG component, a Joint Sub- commission shall be established under the lead of one Commission.
  3. A Sub-commission is expected to be established for several periods.
  4. Sub-commissions are established and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recom- mendation from the Commission President.
  5. A proposal to the Executive Committee for a Joint Sub-commission requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing components.

11. Commission Projects and Joint Projects

  1. A Commission Project may be established when a new scientific method or a new technique is being developed, or when it seems appropriate to apply an existing technique to a specific geographic area where international collaboration is required.
  2. Where a topic for a Commission Project relates to the scientific responsibilities of more than one Commission, or a Commission and a Service, a Joint Commission Project shall be established under the lead of one Commission.
  3. A Commission Project is established for one period and may be extended for another period subject to a positive review.
  4. Commission Projects are established, extended and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation from the Commission President.
  5. A proposal to the Executive Committee for a Joint Commission Project requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing Components.

12. Study Groups, Working Groups, Joint Study Groups and Joint Working Groups

  1. A Study Group or Working Group may be estab- lished at any time to address clearly defined well- focused scientific topics of limited scope within the field of the Commission. A Study Group deals with more theoretical issues and a Working Group with more practical realizations.
  2. Where a topic for a Study Group or Working Group relates to the scientific responsibilities of more than one Commission, or a Commission and a Service, a Joint Study Group or a Joint Working Group shall be established.
  3. A Study Group or Working Group is established for one period or less.
  4. Study Groups and Working Groups, including the position of the group chair, are established and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation from the Commission President.
  5. A proposal to the Executive Committee for a Joint Study Group or Joint Working Group requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing components.
  6. The Chair of a Study Group or Working Group is responsible for initiating and directing its work and appointing its members.
  7. Study Group and Working Group membership should be balanced so as to reflect international cooperation in its subject.
  8. A Study Group or Working Group may have not more than 20 full members and an unlimited number of correspondent members.
  9. The Chair of each Study Group or Working Group shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.
  10. The Chair of each Study Group or Working Group shall report annually to its members and the commission steering committee, on results achieved and outstanding problems.
13. Services

  1. IAG Services generate products, using their own observations and/or observations of other services, relevant for geodesy and for other sciences and applications. Accuracy and robustness of products, quality control, timeliness, and state of the art quality are the essential aspects of the Services.
  2. Each Service shall define its Terms of Reference as appropriate to accomplish its mission and shall submit the Terms of Reference to the IAG Executive Committee for approval.
  3. Each Service shall have an IAG representative, appointed by the IAG Executive Committee, as a voting member of its directing/governing board.
  4. Services are linked to at least one of the Commis- sions and may be also linked to other scientific organizations, such as the World Data System (WDS) or the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
  5. Services should collaborate on a scientific basis with the Commissions, establish Joint Commission Projects and Joint Study Groups and help compile the Commissions' list of themes for Study Groups.
  6. Three representatives shall be elected in accordance with Bylaw 39 to the IAG Executive Committee to serve the interests of all Services.
  7. On any matter relating to the products of a Service, the Service shall represent the IAG.

14. Current Services

On the coming into effect of these Bylaws, there shall be fourteen Services as outlined alphabetically:

  1. International Altimetry Service (IAS)
  2. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) Time Department
  3. International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM)
  4. International Digital Elevation Models Service (IDEMS)
  5. International DORIS Service (IDS)
  6. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS)
  7. International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service (IGETS)
  8. International GNSS Service (IGS)
  9. (International Gravimetric Bureau (BGI)
  10. International Gravity Field Service (IGFS)
  11. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS)
  12. International Service for the Geoid (ISG)
  13. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS)
  14. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)

15.The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS)

  1. The GGOS is IAG’s observing system to monitor the geodetic and the global geodynamic properties of the Earth as a system.
  2. GGOS works with other IAG components, such as the IAG Services and the IAG Commissions, as well as the Inter-commission Committees, to provide unique, mutually consistent, and easily accessible geodetic products (including the geo metric reference frames and the gravity field) and the relevant geodetic constants for science and society.
  3. GGOS operates on its own Terms of Reference, defined by the GGOS Coordinating Board (CB) and approved by the IAG Executive Committee. GGOS nomination and election procedures are specified in its Terms of Reference.
  4. The GGOS Chair is appointed by the IAG Execu- tive Committee in consultation with GGOS CB for one four-year period, which may be renewed once.
16. IAG Projects

  1. IAG Projects are flagship long-term projects of a broad scope and of highest interest and importance for the entire field of geodesy.
  2. Planning for the creation of an IAG Project shall be carried out by a planning group established by the Executive Committee.
  3. The Project Steering Committee shall have the following voting members:
    1. The Project Chair appointed by the IAG Execu- tive Committee
    2. One member from each Commission appointed by the Commissions' Steering Committee
    3. Two Members-at-Large proposed by the members of the Project Steering Committee identified in clause (i) and (ii) above and approved by the IAG Executive Committee.
    4. Chairs of the IAG Project Working Groups (if any).
    5. Representatives of other IAG components, as appropriate.
  4. IAG Project Subcomponents are Working Groups but not Study Groups.
17.Inter-commission Committees

  1. Inter-commission Committees shall handle well defined, important and permanent tasks involving all Commissions.
  2. Each Inter-commission Committee shall have a steering committee, which shall include the follow- ing members:
    1. President appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
    2. Vice President appointed by the IAG Executive Committee on the recommendation of thepresident.
    3. One representative appointed by each Commission.
  3. The terms of reference for each Inter-commission Committee shall be developed by a planning group appointed by the IAG Executive Committee for approval by the Executive Committee.
  4. Inter-commission Committees will be established for at least 2 periods (eight years) and shall be reviewed by the Executive Committee every eight years.
  5. The Inter-commission Committees shall report to the IAG Executive Committee.

18. Communication and Outreach Branch (COB)

  1. The function of the Communication and Outreach Branch is to provide the Association with communication, educational/public information and outreach links to the membership, to other scientific Associations and to the world as a whole.
  2. The responsibilities of the Communication and Outreach Branch shall include the following tasks:
    1. Promote the recognition and usefulness of geodesy in general and IAG in particular.
    2. Publications (newsletters).
    3. Membership development.
    4. General information service and outreach.
  3. The Communication and Outreach Branch shall also assist the IAG General Secretary, in the following tasks as required:
    1. Maintenance of the IAG website.
    2. Setting up Association schools.
    3. Setting up meetings and conferences.
  4. The IAG Executive Committee establishes the COB on a long-term basis by issuing a Call for Participation. The responding organization(s) and the IAG Executive Committee shall then negotiate the Terms of Reference and other conditions.
  5. The President of the Communication and Outreach Branch shall be elected by Council.
  6. Major decisions related to the operations of the COB shall be made by a Steering Committee consisting of the following voting members:
    1. Communications and Outreach Branch President.
    2. IAG Secretary General.
    3. Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Geodesy.
    4. Editor-in-Chief of the IAG Symposia Series.
    5. Up to 5 other members appointed by the Executive Committee on the recommendation of the President of the Communications and Outreach Branch.
19.IAG Publications

  1. The IAG publications include the Journal of Geo- desy, the IAG Symposia Series, the Geodesist's Handbook, the "Travaux de l'Association Inter- nationale de Géodésie," the IAG Newsletter, and IAG Special Publications.
  2. The Association's journal is the Journal of Geodesy, hereinafter referred to as the journal. The journal is published monthly through an agreement between the Association and a publishing company, or by other arrangement approved by the Executive Committee. The terms of any agreement for publication of the journal shall be negotiated by the President of the Communications and Outreach Branch and ratified by the Executive Committee.
  3. The journal publishes peer-reviewed papers, cover- ing the whole range of geodesy, including geodetic applications.
  4. After each IAG General Assembly, a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy shall be published under the name of "The Geodesist's Handbook". This issue provides the actual information on the Association, including the reports of the President and Secretary General presented at the previous IAG General Assembly, the resolutions taken at that Assembly, and the Association structure listing all components and subcomponents for the running period, rules for the IAG Fund, IAG Awards and for the conduct of scientific meetings as well as relevant scientific information.
  5. The IAG Symposia Series publishes peer-reviewed papers related to presentations made at IAG and/or IAG-sponsored Symposia provided that sufficient number of papers are submitted and accepted for publication.
  6. After each IAG General Assembly, a collection of the reports by the Association components shall be published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie". This publication is supplied free of charge to the officers of the Association and to the Adhering Body of each member country.
  7. At every IAG General Assembly each member country is encouraged to a National Report on geodetic work done since the previous General Assembly to be placed on the IAG website. These National Reports, as far as available, are distributed by the IAG Office in the same manner as the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie". (h) The IAG Newsletter is under the editorial respon- sibility of the Communication and Outreach Branch. It should be published on the IAG website and distributed to members electronically.
20.Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board

  1. There shall be one Editor-in-Chief for the journal, hereinafter referred to as the Journal Editor. An Assistant Editor-in-Chief may assist the Journal Editor. The Journal Editor shall be advised and assisted by a Board of Editors, hereinafter referred to as the Board. To ensure broad expertise, each of the Commissions may nominate up to three members of the Board.
  2. The Journal Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the journal. The Journal Editor shall make the final decision on whether a refereed scientific manuscript is accepted for publication. The Journal Editor shall keep the Executive Committee informed of the activities and status of operations of the journal.
  3. Three months before each General Assembly, the current Journal Editor, in consultation with the Bureau, shall recommend a preliminary list of candidates for the new Board of Editors. This list shall be published on the IAG website at least two months in advance of the General Assembly to solicit additional nominations for the Editorial Board from the geodetic community. The additional candidates will be added to the list.
  4. At the General Assembly, the current Board shall appoint the members of the new Board from those recommended. After taking office, the new Board shall nominate the new Journal Editor and the new Assistant Editor for the next period. After approval of these nominations by the Executive Committee, the Journal Editor and the Assistant Editor will be considered as elected. Concurrence with the Publisher will be sought.
  5. The Journal Editor, the Assistant Editor, and the members of the Editorial Board shall each holdoffice for one period, but may be eligible to be re-elected for one further period.
  6. There shall be one Editor-in-Chief for the IAG Symposia Series, hereinafter referred to as the Series Editor. He/she is appointed by the Executive Committee for a four year period. An assistant Editor-in-Chief may also be appointed for the same time period.
  7. The Series Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the IAG Symposia Series. On the recommendation of the volume editors, the Series Editor shall make the final decision on whether a refereed scientific manuscript is accepted for publication. The Series Editor shall keep the Executive Committee informed of the activities and status of operations of the IAG Symposia Series.
  8. Each volume of the IAG Symposia Series shall have additional Volume Editors.

21.Individual Membership

  1. Individuals engaged in geodesy, can become indi- vidual members of the Association on application and payment of the membership fee.
  2. Applications for individual membership are sub- mitted to the Secretary General.
  3. The decision on the membership application shall be made by the Bureau.
  4. Benefits of membership include 
    1. Substantial reduction on the individual sub- scription rate to the Journal of Geodesy.
    2. The right to participate in the IAG election process both as a nominator and a nominee.
    3. Upon application, correspondent membership in a sub-commission or study group of choice.
    4. Reduction of the registration fee for IAG meetings as set under Bylaws 26(d) and 27(b).
  5. The membership fee per annum is set by the Executive Committee. In setting the fee the Execu- tive Committee will consider a recommendation from the Secretary General.
  6. In individual cases, the Secretary General may consider a discount or full remission of member- ship fees on application by the member.
  7. Where a member provides a donation in excess of the membership fee, the excess shall be assigned to the IAG Fund in support of young scientists.
  8. Membership is terminated if the membership fee is not paid or if an application for discount or full remission has not been received one year after the fee was due.

22. Honorary Officers, Fellows

  1. The Executive Committee may appoint a merited past President as Honorary President or a merited Secretary General as Honorary Secretary General.
  2. The Executive Committee may appoint past officers of the Association as Fellows.

23.IAG Fund

The Executive Committee may establish a fund (IAG Fund) for supporting specific IAG activities as defined in the IAG Fund Rules, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook in accordance with Bylaw 19(d). The fund is under the direct responsibility of the President; the fund's resources are administered by the Secretary General.

24.IAG Awards

The Executive Committee may establish awards for outstanding contributions to geodesy and distinguished service to the Association. The rules for the awards are published in the Geodesist's Handbook in accordance with Bylaw 19(d).

25. Administration of the IAG General Assemblies

  1. The IAG General Assembly will be held at the same time and the same place as the IUGG General Assembly.
  2. Before any IAG General Assembly, the Bureau of the Association shall prepare detailed agendas for the Council meetings, Executive Committee meetings, the opening and the closing sessions.
  3. The Executive Committee shall draw up the agenda for the scientific program. Joint Symposia covering topics of interest to two or more Associations within the Union may be arranged.
  4. The agendas developed according to (b) and (c) above are sent to the member countries and to all the officers of the Association so as to reach them at least two months prior to the IAG General Assembly. In principle, only matters on the agenda may be considered during the sessions, unless a decision to do otherwise is passed by a two-thirds majority in the Council concerning the agenda of the Council meeting.
  5. At each IAG General Assembly, the President shall present a detailed report on the scientific work of the Association during his/her tenure. The Secretary General shall present a detailed report on the administrative work and on the finances of the Association for the same period. The President and Secretary General should include in their reports, proposals for work to be undertaken during the coming period, within the limits of expected resources. These reports shall be published in "The Geodesist's Handbook".
  6. At each IAG General Assembly, the work of each Commission, each Service, the Communication and Outreach Branch, and each IAG Project shall be reported by its President / Chair. IAG Representatives to other scientific bodies report to the Executive Committee.

26. Scientific Meetings

  1. (a) Scientific meetings of the IAG are:
    1. (i) the Scientific Symposia held during a General Assembly;
    2. (ii) Scientific Assemblies, including Scientific Symposia; and
    3. (iii) IAG sponsored Symposia.
  2. (b) The IAG Newsletter shall include on a regular basis a Calendar of IAG Symposia and other scientific meetings organized or sponsored by the IAG or its components.
  3. (c) The Executive Committee shall appoint an official IAG Scientific Meeting Representative for each of the scientific meetings other than the General Assembly and the Scientific Assembly to be governed by these Bylaws. The representative is obliged to remind the organizers to obey the Bylaws for scientific meetings and to report back to the Executive Committee.
  4. (d) A reduced registration fee shall be offered for individual members in accordance with 21(d) (iv).

27. Scientific Assemblies

  1. (a) Scientific assemblies are held mid-way during the period between two IAG General Assemblies and shall consist of a group of component meetings and/or a group of Scientific Symposia, held at the same time and place.
  2. (b) A reduced registration fee shall be offered for individual members in accordance with 21(d) (iv).

28. Scientific Symposia

  1. (a) Scientific symposia take place at the IAG General Assembly and the IAG Scientific Assembly. In general, they shall be organized by Association components and subcomponents, and be led by their respective chairs.
  2. (b) The study of some questions may require joint meetings of several components under a chair, appointed by the Executive Committee. A com- mittee consisting of the component chairs shall decide on the agenda and on the inclusion of scientific presentations.
  3. (c) At each IUGG General Assembly Joint Scientific Symposia covering topics of interest to two or more Associations within the IUGG and/or other international scientific organizations may be arranged. Though the IAG may be asked to act as convenor or co-convenor, these symposia shall follow the rules issued by the IUGG. The IAG may participate also in joint symposia at any other time outside of the IAG General Assembly obeying the same procedures.
  4. (d) The arrangement of a scientific symposium shall be subject to the usual approval procedure provided by in the Geodesist's Handbook in accordance with Bylaw 19(d).

29.IAG Sponsored Symposia

  1. The IAG may sponsor a symposium covering broad parts of geodesy and having large attendance at any suitable time outside the IAG General Assemblies or Scientific Assemblies, and shall call it an IAG Sponsored Symposium, provided the following conditions are fulfilled:
    1. One or more Association component or sub- component shall sponsor it or at least two Study Groups.
    2. Host organization of the symposium shall accept a representative in the Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
    3. The symposium shall be open to all bona-fide scientists in accordance with the ICSU rules.
    4. The symposium proceedings shall be published.
  2. The SOC appointed under 29(a)(ii) above shall be responsible for the quality of science of the symposium being at a high level. A Local Organizing Committee (LOC) shall take care of the organization and logistics.
  3. Applications for approval of an IAG Symposium should be submitted to the Secretary General at least one year before the intended date of the meeting.

30.International Cooperation

  1. The Association may participate in joint bodies of the IUGG and other scientific organizations, especially those belonging to the International Council for Science (ICSU). These bodies shall be administered according to their specific rules.
  2. The Association shall initiate international cooperation in scientific work of international and interdisciplinary character. This includes the adequate participation in international programs and projects and the representation at scientific congresses, symposia etc. of organizations with related activities.
  3. Representatives to international programs and projects shall be appointed by the Executive Committee and shall inform the EC on the activities, on a biannual basis. The representatives shall also prepare a report to be presented at the IAG General Assembly.

31. Duties of the Council

  1. In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the Council shall:
    1. Examine questions of general scientific policy or administration, and propose actions deemed necessary.
    2. Elect the voting members of the Executive Committee, with the exception of the GGOS Chair, see 15(d) and the ICCT President, see 17(b(i)).
    3. Receive reports from the Secretary General and consider for approval the decisions or actions taken by the Bureau and the Executive Committee since the last Council meeting.
    4. Set up and dissolve Association components.
    5. Appoint the three members of the ad hoc (audit) committee created for examining the finances of the Association, consider its recommendations and adopt the final budget.
    6. Consider proposals for changes in the Statutes and Bylaws.
    7. Decide on the venue of IAG Scientific Assemblies.
    8. Approve the establishment of Inter-Commission Committees and IAG Projects.
  2. Council meetings shall be convened by the President of the Association. It shall meet at least once during each IAG General Assembly and may be convened at other times, normally coinciding with the IAG Scientific Assembly according to the Statutes 13b.

32. Duties of the Executive Committee

  1. In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the Executive Committee shall:
    1. Initiate actions and issue guidelines, as required, to guide the Association towards the achievement of its scientific objectives.
    2. Fill vacancies occurring between IAG General Assemblies, in accordance with the Statutes and Bylaws.
    3. Approve the internal structure of Association components.
    4. Make recommendations to the Council on matters of general policy of the Association and on the implementation of its objectives.
    5. Appoint Honorary Officers and Fellows of the Association, upon the recommendation of the Bureau.
    6. Appoint planning groups for Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
    7. Establish Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
    8. Appoint a Committee for reviewing and updating the IAG Statutes and Bylaws when deemed necessary.
    9. Confirm the Assistant Secretaries of the Association.
    10. Confirm the links between Commissions and Services.
    11. Adopt the suggested membership fee
    12. Appoint the Vice President of each Commis- sion.
    13. Appoint representatives to external bodies.
  2. Executive Committee meetings shall be convened by the President of the Association. It shall meet at IAG General Assemblies and its members are expected to attend the meetings of the Council, with voice but without vote. It shall also meet normally at least once a year, especially one year before the IAG General Assembly, in order to prepare the scientific agenda and the timetable of the next IAG General Assembly.
  3. At a meeting of the Executive Committee, no member may be represented by any other person, except by the corresponding Vice Presidents or Vice Chairs of the IAG components represented in the EC. In order that the deliberations of the Executive Committee shall be valid, a quorum of at least half of its members must be present or represented.
  4. The agenda for each meeting of the Executive Committee shall be prepared by the Bureau and sent to the members at least two months prior to the meeting.

33. Duties of the Bureau

  1. In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the Bureau shall:
    1. Draw up the agenda of the meetings of the Council and Executive Committee and send these to the members at least two months prior to the meeting.
    2. Ensure the adequate administration of the Association.
    3. Receive applications for individual member- ships and accept individuals as Members of the Association.
    4. Recommend Honorary Officers and Fellows to the Executive Committee.
  2. The Bureau shall normally meet before each meeting of the Executive Committee.
34. Duties of the President
In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the President shall:
  1. Provide general leadership for the Association in all matters.
  2. Convene and preside over the IAG General Assembly and over all meetings of the Council, Executive Committee and Bureau.
  3. Represent the Association in the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.
  4. Represent the Association in its dealing with national or international organizations or institutions.
  5. Submit a report to the IAG General Assembly on the scientific work of the Association during his/her tenure.
35. Duties of the Vice President

In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the Vice President shall act as the President whenever the President is not present or is unable to perform any of the President’s duties, and shall perform such tasks as may be assigned by the President, the Executive Com- mittee or the Council.

36. Duties of the Secretary General

In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the Secretary General shall:

  1. Serve as secretary of the General Assembly, the Scientific Assembly, the Council, the Executive Committee and the Bureau; arrange for meetings of these bodies, distribute promptly the agenda and prepare and distribute the minutes of all their meetings.
  2. Act as Director of the IAG Office.
  3. Manage the affairs of the Association including finances as per 42(b), attend to correspondence, and preserve the records.
  4. Circulate all appropriate information related to the Association.
  5. Prepare the reports of the Association's activities.
  6. Perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Bureau.
  7. The function of the Secretary General is unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with thefunctions and duties are repayable.
37. Assistant Secretaries

  1. The Secretary General is assisted by a small number of assistant secretaries.
  2. The position of Assistant Secretary is unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with the functions and duties are repayable.
38.IAG Office

To assist the Secretary General, the Association establishes the IAG Office in the country in which the Secretary General resides. The Executive Committee negotiates logistical and financial support with the host country.

39. Procedure for Nominations and Elections of Officers

  1. Elections shall take place by e-mail vote before each IAG General Assembly and should be completed one month before the assembly.
  2. The President of the Association, after taking advice from the Executive Committee, shall appoint a Nominating Committee consisting of a Chair and three other members.
  3. The Nominating Committee, after taking advice from the Delegates of the Adhering Bodies, the officers, fellows, and members of the Association, shall normally propose at least two candidates for each position to be filled by election in the Council. Candidates shall be asked to signify their acceptance of nomination and to prepare a resume, maximum 150 words, outlining their position, research interests and activities relating to the Association.
  4. The Adhering Bodies and the individual membership shall be informed of these nominations three months before the IAG General Assembly.
  5. During the following month further nominations can be submitted by the Delegates of the Adhering Bodies. Such additional nominations shall be in writing, shall be supported by at least two members of the Council, and shall be submitted with resumes as described above to the Chair of the Nominating Committee.
  6. Nominations shall be checked against the eligibility criteria in Bylaw 40 by the Nominating Committee. Ineligible nominations will not be accepted and the members of Council who supported the nomination will be advised of the reason for its rejection.
  7. Delegates shall be informed of these further eligible nominations and resumes and of their supporters.
  8. The Chair of the Nominating Committee shall write to all Services asking them for one nomination from each Service for the Service representatives in the Executive Committee. The Nomi- nating Committee shall recommend normally two nominees for each of the Services’ three positions, considering appropriate scientific and national distribution. The procedure for seeking additional nominations in sub clause (e) above does not apply to these positions.
  9. If candidates have been nominated for more than one position, they will be asked to make a decision for which position they will allow their name to stand.
  10. Elections shall be by e-mail ballot and by majority vote.
  11. The Members-at-Large shall be elected in a second round after the other members of the Executive Committee are known, in order to fulfil the condition of geographical and organizational balance (see Statutes 12a).
40.Eligibility and Terms of Office

  1. No person may hold more than one of the following offices at the same time: President of the Association, Vice President, President of a Commission, President of an Inter-commission Committee, Chair of a Service, Chair of GGOS, President of the Communication and Outreach Branch, Chair of an IAG Project.
  2. A member of the IUGG Bureau or of the IUGG Finance Committee may not occupy the post of President, of Vice President or of Secretary General of the Association.
  3. The President of the Association is elected for one period and may not be immediately re-elected to the same office.
  4. The Vice President is elected for one period and may not be re-elected to the same office.
  5. The Secretary General is elected for one period initially. He/she may be re-elected for two additional periods. The Geodesist’s Handbook 2016

41.Extraordinary Vacancies

  1. Should the position of President become vacant during the Period between two IAG General Assemblies, hisduties devolve to the Vice President until the closure of the next IAG General Assembly.
  2. Should the post of Secretary General become vacant, the President shall arrange without delay for the Executive Committee to propose a replace- ment and for the Council to appoint a new Secretary General so as to ensure the continuity of the work of the IAG Office. This appointment has effect until the closure of the next IAG General Assembly and shall not be counted in the restriction of eligibility for re-election of the Secretary General under Bylaw 40(e).

42. Finances

  1. The Finances of the Association derive from the following sources:
    1. Contributions of IUGG Adhering Bodies of which a portion, determined by the IUGG Council on recommendation of its Finance Committee, is paid to the Association by the Treasurer of the Union.
    2. Sale of publications.
    3. IAG Fund collected from individual contributions for specific purposes.
    4. Membership fee.
    5. A portion of the registration fee charged at IAG symposia.
    6. Other sources e.g., grants, interests, and funds remaining after a symposium.
  2. The Secretary General is responsible to the Bureau and to the Council for managing the funds in accordance with the Statutes and Bylaws, with the decisions of the Council. The Secretary General alone shall be responsible for control of the financial operations of the Association.
  3. At each IAG General Assembly the budget proposal for the next period shall be presented by the Secretary General and submitted for approval to the Council. The budget as approved by the Council shall be implemented by the Secretary General.
  4. During each IAG General Assembly, the Council shall examine all expenditures during the preceding period to ensure that they were in accordance with the proposed budget previously approved. This examination shall be carried out by an ad hoc (audit) committee appointed by the Council; see also 31(a)(v).
  5. In addition, the accounts shall be audited by a qualified accountant and shall then be reported to the IUGG Treasurer, as prescribed in Article 20 of the IUGG Bylaws.

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