2003-09-07

WG2: Building Structures as Kinematic Systems

International Association of Geodesy
IAG Special Commission 4
Application of Geodesy to Engineering 
SC4 WG2: Building Structures as Kinematic Systems

Chairman: Dr. Gyula Mentes, 
Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 
H-9400 Sopron, Csatkai E. u. 6-8. Hungary, 
Tel.: +36-99-314290, Fax.: +36-99-313267,
E-mail: mentes@ggki.hu

July 12, 1999

The working group was organized to carry out research to investigate building motions. The activity of the working group was determined in the following research topics:

1. Kinematic sensors and their application for measurements of motions:

  • Development of sensors of high stability for measurement of very small linear and angular displacements and tilts. Proposed type of sensors : inductive and capacitive displacement transducers, tilt sensors, linear and matrix CCD sensors, accelerometers, hidrostatic sensors, laser interferometers, different types of gyroscopes, GPS.
  • Development of measuring methods.
  • Development of high precision methods for the test and calibration of the sensors and instruments.

2. Automation of kinematic measurements

  • automatic data collection and processing,
  • automatic in situ calibration of the sensors,
  • automatic correction of the disturbing environmental parameters (temperature, air pressure, humidity, etc.),
  • development of measuring robots,
  • application of real-time photogrammetry.

3. Application of kinematic measurements and methods in engineering geodesy

  • Development new methods for the measurement of deformation and movements of different structures (buildings, bridges, towers, dams, etc.)
  • Development combined methods applying more technologies simultaneously (e.g. measurement robots and GPS; photogrammetry and GPS; etc.)

4. Development of mathematical and physical models taking the properties of the object to be measured and the parameters of the environment into account.

5. Development of data processing methods in the next fields:

  • automatic data processing,
  • filtering of data,
  • automatic calibration of the measurements,
  • automatic correction of the measured data (temperature, air pressure, humidity, etc.).

Results of the Working Group

The working group has 18 members from 13 countries. Three international seminars and a meeting of the Working Group were organised during this four year period. 

  1. 1st Winter Seminar on Engineering Geodesy "Application of Geodesy to Engineering", Sopron, December 13th, 1996.
  2. 2nd Winter Seminar on Engineering Geodesy "Application of Geodesy to Engineering", Sopron, December 5th, 1997.
  3. 3rd Winter Seminar on Engineering Geodesy "Application of Geodesy to Engineering, Sopron, December 11th, 1998.
  4. Meeting of the Working Group "Building Structures as Kinematic Systems" Sopron on March 30th, 1999.

New sensors were constructed to investigate the movements of buildings, bridges, power stations, dams, etc. Temperature variations cause the strongest effect on the accuracy of the measuring systems. To solve this problem high precision, contactless and drift-free CCD-displacement sensors with high stability were developed for continuous observation of the movements of industrial objects (Mentes, 1998). Two systems ("fluid level" and "fluid pressure") of hydrostatic tiltmeters were constructed. For both types of instruments new dynamic (Kahmen and Mentes, 1998) and thermal models (Mentes and Kahmen, 1998) were developed to achieve a high accuracy and to eliminate the thermal effects. High-precision optical and laser instruments were developed for measurement of small linear and angular movements (Dede, 1998; Karsounskaia and Parvulyusov, 1998; Vassena et al. 1998) and for vibration measurements of large objects (Tervaskanto, 1998).

New calibration methods and instruments were developed to calibrate linear and angular displacement sensors (Mentes, 1998), tilt (Mentes et al., 1996) and strain meters (Mentes, 1998; Santala, 1998). Image processing techniques was developed for determination of the influence of the refraction on the accuracy of the deformation measurements ( Flach and Hennes, 1998).

New methods using GPS techniques were developed for deformation and vibration measurements (Hartinger and Brunner, 1998; Horemuz, 1998; Fan, 1998; Santerre et al., 1998; Bumker and Fitzen, 1998; Flesch, 1998). Automatic measuring methods were developed for deformation measurements (Mönicke, 1998; Zhenglu et al. 1998). Combination of different techniques (GPS, Satelite images, photogrammetric techniques) were used for deformation measurements of bridges, reservoir walls, etc.(Dede et al. 1998; de Seixas, 1998; Maas, 1998; Uzdiger and Altan, 1998). 

New data processing algorithms for deformation measurements of bridges, buildings, tunnels, etc. were developed (Wübbena and bagge, 1998; Mok, 1998; Grimm-Pitzinger et al. 1998; Prószynski, 1998; Meha and Kabashi, 1998) Thermal models were developed for increasing the accuracy of deformation measurements (Kapovic and Roic, 1998).

Deformation processes in the ground and the associated dynamics in the ground's near-surface regime are in connection with the motion of buildings and are of highest interest at construction of tunnels (Ingensand et al. 1998). To study local ground motions and dynamics two borehole tiltmeters and simultaneous GPS and EDM measurements were carried out (Lehmann et al., 1998; Mentes, 1998). To prove that the obtained results can be very well used to study the coupling between ground dynamics and monument motion simultaneous measurements by two borehole tiltmeters in the Sopron TV tower's fundament and in the vicinity of the tower ground tilt measurements are planed to carry out. The meeting of the Working Group has prooved that the investigation of the connection between ground and building motions is very important at deformation measurements on industrial objects (see the presentations of the meeting of the Working Group in Sopron!).

Papers presented on the meeting of the Working Group "Building Structures as Kinematic Systems" in Sopron on March 30th, 1999 

  1. Kümpel, H. - J., Lehmann, K., Fabian, M.: Background Tilting of "Fixed" Structures at Shallow Depths in a Sedimentary Basin
  2. Dede, K., Szabó, M., Szücs, L.: Analysis of Vertical Movements in the Area of Oil-field Algyo
  3. Katrycz, W.: Development of an Integrated Inertial Measuring System for Deformation Analysis of Landfill sites
  4. Mastelic - Ivic, S.: Application of GPS and Precise Levelling in Determining Vertical Bridge Movements
  5. Brimich, L.: Tilt measurement of the atomic power station in Jaslovské Bohunice
  6. Dede, K.: Analysis of the Vertical Deformations of a Building
  7. Wolfgang Katrycz, W.: Vermessung von Deponie-Überwachung
  8. Csepregi, Sz.: Überwachung der Deformationen von Wohngebäuden in Székesfehérvár
  9. Mentes, Gy.: Increasing the resolution of CCD line sensors by image matching

List of publications

Lehmann, K., Mentes Gy., Kümpel, H.-J., Varga P. 1998: Approaching Local Ground Dynamics by Measurements of Ground Tilt. Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.): Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. Institut für Landesvermessung und Ingenieurgeodäsie, Abteilung Ingenieurgeodäsie, TU Wien, pp. 99-104.

Mentes Gy., Lehmann, K., Varga P., Kümpel, H.-J. 1996: Some Calibration of the Applied Geomechanics Inc. Borhole Tiltmeter Model 722. Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung, Vol. 31(1-2), pp. 79-89.

Mentes Gy. 1998: Calibration of CCD-sensors Used for Deformation Measurements. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Engineering Surveying INGEO '98, Slovak University of Technology Bratislava, pp. 37-42.

Mentes Gy. 1998: Calibration of tidal instruments. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Earth Tides, Brussels, pp. 43-50.

Mentes Gy.: Preliminary Results of Tilt Measurements at the Mecsek-fault in Hungary. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Engineering Surveying INGEO '98, Slovak University of Technology Bratislava, 1998, pp. 239-244.

Mentes Gy., Kahmen, H. 1998: Analysis of thermally induced errors on hydrostatic measurements of height variations. Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.): Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. Institut für Landesvermessung und Ingenieurgeodäsie, Abteilung Ingenieurgeodäsie, TU Wien, pp. 210-215.

Kahmen, H., Mentes Gy. 1998: Contribution to the dynamics of hydrostatic tiltmeters. Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.): Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. Institut für Landesvermessung und Ingenieurgeodäsie, Abteilung Ingenieurgeodäsie, TU Wien, pp. 301-306.

Wübbena G., Bagge A. 1998: GNSS Multi-Station Adjustment for Permanent Deformation Analysis Networks, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 139-144.

Hartinger H., Brunner F. K. 1998: Experimental Detection of Deformations using GPS, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 145-152.

Horemuz M. 1998: GPS Deformation and Vibration Measurements: Possibilites and Limits, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 153-158.

Mok E. 1998: A Single Epoch GPS Processing Algorithm for Deformation Monitoring, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 159-166.

Mönicke H.-J. 1998: First Results with a Target Tracking Tacheometer in Kinematic Applications, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 167-171.

Santala J. 1998: On Using of an Accurate 3D-Theodolite Measuring System for Calibration of the Angle Sensors of a Satellite Antenna, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 172-177.

Grimm-Pitzinger A., Weinold Th., Gillarduzzi K., Payr B. 1998: Evaluation of redundant measurements to eccentric rods, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 178-183.

Fan H. 1998: On the Highway Centre-Line Layout by GPS Technique, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 184-191.

Zhenglu Z., Quanyi H., Nianxue L., Baichong C. 1998: Research into a Connected Sequence and Automatic System in Terrestrial Surveying Engineering on Total station, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 192-197.

Dede K. 1998: High-Precision Optical Instrument for Measurement of Short Distances, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 204-209.

Mentes G., Kahmen H. 1998: Analysis of thermally induced errors on hydrostatic measurements of height variations, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 210-215.

Prószynski W. 1998: Reliability measures for the systems with correlated observations - a comparative study, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 216-221.

Ingensand H., Ryf A., Stengele R.1998: The Gotthard Base Tunnel - a challange for geodesy and geotechnics, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 222-229.

Flach P., Hennes M. 1998: Image processing techniques for determination influences, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 230-236.

Santerre R., Lamoureux L., Michaud St. 1998: Analysis of the Displacements of the Pierre-Laporte Suspension Bridge as Measured by Precise GPS Surveys, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 250-251.

Dede K., Szabó M., Szücs L. 1998: New Results of Deformation Measurements at the Banks of the Danube in Budapest, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 252-257.

Meha M., Kabashi I. 1998: Anlaysis of Deformation Determination of Rotary Furnaces with Geodetic Methods, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 258-263.

Karsounskaia M. M., Parvulyusov Yu. B. 1998: Developing and investigation of the laser system for automatic aiming used in geodetic instruments, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 264-268.

de Seixas J. J., de Oliveira Lima A. T. 1998: Delimitation of Indigenous Lands Through Global Positioning System And Satellite Images - Base for a GIS, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 269-278.

Flesch R. 1998: Structural Monitoring via Dynamic in-situ Testing, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 281-284.

Heunecke O., Pelzer H. 1998: A new Terminology for Deformation Analysis Models based onSystem Theory, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 285-292.

Uzgider E., Altan O. 1998: Field Testing and Evaluation of Railway Bridges, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 293-300.

Kahmen H., Mentes G. 1998: Contribution to the dynamics of hydrostatic tlitmeters, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 301-306.

Kapovic Z., Roic M. 1998: The Influence of Temperature on the Vertical Movements of Krk Bridge, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 307-312.

Maas H.-G. 1998: Photogrammetric techniques for deformation measurements on reservoir walls, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 319-324.

Tervaskanto M. 1998: A laser based displacement measurement technology for monitoring and testing the dynamic behaviour of large structures, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 325-330.

Vassena G., Azzoni A., Mazzá G., Scaioni M. 1998: The automatic collimator for dam monitoring ISAC 5000. Results of one year tests, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 331-336.

Bumker M., Fitzen H.-P. 1998: High Precision Slow Motion Monitoring with Low Cost GPS Receivers in Real Time, In: Kahmen/Brückl/Wunderlich (Eds.) Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Eisenstadt, 337-344.

List of members:

M. O. Altan
Department of Geodesy and Photogrametry Faculty of Civil Engineering
Istanbul Technical University
TR-80626 Moslak, Istanbul
Tel: +90-212-285-3030

Asim Bilajbegovic
Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden
Fachbereichen Vermessungswesen/Kartografie
Tel: + 49 351 462 3420 Fax: + 49 351 462 2191

Prof. F. Brunner
Technical University Graz
A-8010 Graz
Steyrergasse 30
Fax:43-316-831793

Bruno Crippa
Dipatimento di Idraulica, Ambientale e del Rilevamento Settore di Topografia
Politecnico di Milano
I-20133 Milano
Piazza Leonardo de Vinci, 32
Tel:+39-2-2399 6504/6506 Fax: +39-2-2399 6530 Email: bruno@impf1.topo.polimi.it

G. Lachapelle
University of Calgary, Department of Surveying Engineering
2500 University Drive N.W.
Calgary Alberta T2n 1N4, Canada
Tel: +1-403-220-7104 / +1-403-220-1980 Fax:+1-403-284-0980

Hans-Joachim Mönicke
Institut für Anwendungen der Geodäsie im Bauwesen Universität Stuttgart 
Pfaffenwaldring 7A
D-70569 Stuttgart 80
Tel: 0711-685 6612 Fax: 0711-685 6670 E-mail: rainer@po.uni-stuttgart.de

Otto Heunecke
Geodätisches Institut Universität Hannover
Nienburger Str. 1
D-3000 Hannover 1
Tel: +49-762 2461 Fax: +49-762 2468

Prof. dr hab. Witold Proszynski
Politechnika Warszawska Instytut Geodezji Gospodarczej 
pl. Politechniki 1, pok 302
PL-00-661 Warszawa
University of Technology, Institut of Geodesy and Geodetical Astronomy, Warsaw
Tel:+48-22-660 7299 Fax:+48-22-625 1527

Michael Kuhn
University of Technology Vienna
Institute of Ingeneer Geodesy
A-1040 Vienna
Guhausstrae 27-29.
Tel: 43-1-58801/3774 Fax: 43-1-5042721

Alojz Kopacik
Geodetic Institute of the Slovakian Technical University
Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava
Tel:42-07-394-334 Fax: 42-07-394-334 Email: gkopa@svf.stuba.sk

János Kalmár
Geodetic and Geophysical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
H-9400 Sopron, Csatkai E. u. 6-8.
Hungary
Tel:+36-99-314290 Fax:+36-99-313267 Email: kalmar@ggki.hu

Hain Papo
Technion Israel Institute of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering
Fax:+972-48-220133 Email:CVRHV11@TECHNION.BITNET

Tomas Egeltoft
Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Geodesy
Stockholm Sweden
Tel: +46-8-7907369 Fax: +46-48-7907343

Prof. Dr. Hans Heister
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Institut für Geodäsie 
Tel: +49-89-6004-3433 Fax: +49-89-6004-4090

Prof. Andreas Pfeufer
Universität Hannover Geodätisches Institut
Nienburger Str.1
D-3000 Hannover 1
Tel: 0511-762 2794 Fax: 0511-762 4006

Prof. Dr. Jean M. Rüeger
School of Surveying,
University of New South Wales
Kensington, Australia 
Tel: +61-29-6974173 Fax: +61-2-6977493

Dipl.-Ing. Eva-Nicole Dietz
TH Darmstadt
Geodätisches Institut 
Petersenstrae 13
D-64287 Darmstadt
Tel: +49-6151-163247 Fax: +49-6151-164047 

Dr. Dede Károly
Technical University Budapest 
1111 Budapest
Műegyetem rkp. 3. Központi ép. I. 61.
Tel: 36-1-463-1222

Dr. Ing. Giorgio Vassena
Universitá degli Studi di Brescia
Facoltá di Ingegneria - Dipertimento di Ingegneria Civile
Via Branze, 38 - 25123 Brescia ITALY
Tel: +39-30-3715508 Fax: +39-30-3715503

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