IAG By-Laws (2003-2007)

Table of Content: 

  1. Structure
    1. Responsibilities
    2. Commissions
      1. List of Commission
      2. Sub-Commissions
      3. Commission-Projects
      4. Study-Groups
      5. Joint Sub-Commissions/Projects/Study-Groups
    3. Services
    4. IAG Projects
    5. Communication and Outreach Branch
      1. Responsibilities
      2. Publications
    6. Inter-commission Committees
  2. Administration
    1. Membership
    2. General Assembly
    3. Council
    4. Executive Committee
    5. Bureau
      1. President
      2. Vice-President
      3. Secretary General
    6. Assistant and Assembly Secretaries
    7. Central Bureau
    8. Elections
    9. International Cooperation
  3. Scientific Meetings
    1. Scientific Symposia
    2. Scientific Assembly
    3. IAG Symposia
  4. Finance

1. The scientific work of the Association is performed within a component-STRUCTURE consisting of Commissions, Services, the Communication and Outreach Branch, and IAG Projects, hereafter called the Association-components or components. The Council decides the respective responsibilities of these components on recommendation of the Executive Committee. Because of the complex inter-relations among various activities of the Association, interaction between the individual components is implied.

The list of all components and sub-components shall be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.

The Association may also participate in joint bodies of the IUGG and other scientific organizations, especially those belonging to the International Council for Science (ICSU). These bodies shall be administered according to their specific rules. Their relationship with the Association will be placed under the responsibility of either the IAG Executive Committee or a specific Association component, and handled by the IAG representatives.

1.1 The components are led by Component Steering Committees under the leadership of presidents/chairs. Their RESPONSIBILITIES shall be as follows:

The Component Presidents are responsible for the scientific development within the interest of the component. They shall coordinate the work of the bodies assigned to the component (sub-components), and keep the officers of the component as well as the Bureau informed of the component's activities, on an annual basis. Sub-components are treated later in the Bylaws.

The reports of the sub-components (if any) should reach the President of the relevant component two months before each General Assembly, if not otherwise stated. These reports and the reports of the components are published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie".

The President shall receive suggestions for new sub-components, and suggestions for continuation of existing ones, shall coordinate them and transmit recommendations to the IAG Executive Committee.

The Component Steering Committee shall meet at least once per year and at least once during each General Assembly. At the General Assembly, at the IAG Scientific meeting or on some other appropriate occasion, the Committee shall review the activities of the bodies assigned to the component over the past period, and for those which will be recommended for continuation, review their programs for the forthcoming period. The constitution of the Component Steering Committees is described later in the Bylaws.

The Central Bureau should receive copies of all relevant correspondence of components and sub-components of the Association.

Components as well as the sub-components are free to hold scientific meetings. Scientific symposia are subject to the approval procedure of the IAG Executive Committee. A scientific symposium has to be sponsored by one or more component or sub-component.

1.2 COMMISSIONS shall promote the advancement of science, technology and international cooperation in their field. They establish the necessary links with sister disciplines and with the relevant Services. Commissions shall represent the Association in all scientific domains related to their field of geodesy.

The Commissions are one of the main components of the IAG structure. In addition to their main tasks they are also responsible for their sub-components: the Sub-commissions, Commission-Projects, Study-Groups, and Joint Sub-components.

1.2.1 There are at present four COMMISSIONS which are listed below with their main topics/tasks indicated:

Commission 1. Reference Frames

  1. Establishment, maintenance, improvement of the geodetic reference frames.
  2. Advanced terrestrial and space observation technique development for the above purposes.
  3. International collaboration for the definition and deployment of networks of terrestrially-based space geodetic observatories.
  4. Theory and coordination of astrometric observation for reference frame purposes.
  5. Collaboration with space geodesy/reference frame related international services, agencies and organizations.

Commission 2. Gravity Field

  1. Terrestrial, marine, and airborne gravimetry.
  2. Satellite gravity field observations.
  3. Gravity field modeling.
  4. Time-variable gravity field.
  5. Geoid determination.
  6. Satellite orbit modeling and determination

Commission 3. Earth Rotation and Geodynamics

  1. Earth Orientation (Earth rotation, polar motion, nutation and precession).
  2. Earth tides.
  3. Tectonics and Crustal Deformation.
  4. Sea surface topography and sea level changes.
  5. Planetary and lunar dynamics.
  6. Effects of the Earth's fluid layers (e.g., post glacial rebound, loading).

Commission 4. Positioning and Applications.

  1. Terrestrial and satellite-based positioning systems development, including sensor and information fusion.
  2. Navigation and guidance of platforms.
  3. Interferometric laser and radar applications (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar).
  4. Applications of geodetic positioning using three dimensional geodetic networks (passive and active networks), including monitoring of deformations.
  5. Applications of geodesy to engineering.
  6. Atmospheric investigations using space geodetic techniques.

Each Commission shall have a Steering Committee, with a maximum of twelve voting members, which shall define the appropriate sub-structure of the Commission, which may consists of the following components:

  1. Sub-commissions.
  2. Study Groups.
  3. Commission Projects.

Sub-commissions and Commission Projects are long-term components, Study Groups are of a short-term nature (maximum of four years). The IAG Executive Committee shall approve the structure and changes to the structure of the Commission.

The Commission Steering Committee shall be set up at each General Assembly, following the election of the Association officers. It shall be composed of the following membership:

  1. President elected by the Council.
  2. Vice-president appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
  3. Chairs of the long-term components.
  4. Up to three representatives of the Services relevant to the work of the Commission.
  5. Up to two Members-at-Large to balance geographical and member country representation

Commission Presidents and Vice-presidents shall serve in general for one four-year period. Re-elections are possible in exceptional cases. The representatives of the services are appointed by the services.

The Commission President and Vice-president appoint the Members-at-Large and the chairs of the long-term components within two months following the General Assembly. The IAG Executive Committee shall approve the appointments. Members-at-Large are appointed for a four-year period without reappointment.

The Commission Steering Committee is responsible for maintaining IAG activities in its domain, between and at the General Assemblies. This includes the following:

  1. Review the Commission's field of interests and objectives.
  2. Liaison with the other IAG commissions, the Inter-commission Committees, and with similar organizations outside the IAG, as appropriate.
  3. Foster active participation of young geodesists and geodesists from under-represented countries.
  4. Coordinate and review the work of its components and report at the time of the Scientific Assembly to the Executive Committee on the progress and performance of the components.
  5. Organize Commission and interdisciplinary symposia and/or sessions at major geodesy related international meetings.
  6. Maintain a commission web page and e-mail service
  7. Nominate up to three editors for the Journal of Geodesy.

The Commission Steering Committee shall meet at least once per year.

1.2.2 SUB-COMMISSIONS deal with long-term issues/topics in the field of the Commission. They are established for long time periods (typically several four-year cycles). The Commission Steering Committee before each General Assembly shall regularly review their work and the need for their continuation. A Sub-commission shall be set up for topics where the Commission claims to play a leading or coordinating role. Each Commission shall contain a reasonably small number of Sub-commissions. Guidelines for the establishment of Sub- commissions are established by the Executive Committee and published in the Geodesist's Handbook. 

1.2.3 COMMISSION PROJECTS may be established when a new scientific method or a new technique is being developed, or when it seems appropriate to apply an existing technique to a specific geographic area where international collaboration is required. Commissions shall establish only a reasonably small number of Commission Projects. They should be viewed as flagships for the Commission. The Commission Project is initially established for four years, and it may be extended for another four-year period, subject to a successful review. Commission Projects are established and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation from the Commission. Guidelines for the establishment of Commission Projects are established by the Executive Committee and published in the Geodesist's Handbook. 

1.2.4 STUDY-GROUPS address clearly defined well-focused scientific topics of limited scope within the field of the Commission over a limited time period of maximum four years. Study Groups may be set up at any time by the Commission Steering Committee upon recommendation of one or more members or by individual scientists at one of the committee's regular meetings. Approval by the IAG Executive Committee is required for the establishment or termination of a Study Group. Guidelines for the establishment of Study -Groups are established by the Executive Committee and published in the Geodesist's Handbook.

The Chair of a Study Group is responsible for initiating and directing its work and appointing its members. Study Group membership should be balanced so as to reflect international cooperation in its subject and shall be limited to a number not exceeding 20. Corresponding members maybe selected.

The Chair of each Study Group shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly. To assist communication and cooperation within each Study Group, its members and the commission steering committee should be kept informed, on an annual basis, of results achieved and of outstanding problems. 

1.2.5 Commissions are encouraged to establish interdisciplinary JOINT SUB-COMMISSIONS, STUDY GROUPS, AND PROJECTS in topics involving more than one Commission. They are also encouraged to set up joint Commission Projects and/or Study Groups with the appropriate services. A lead-Commission shall be specified for such undertakings. Coordination amongst Commissions is the responsibility of the IAG Executive Committee. 

1.3 SERVICES are part of the Association’s work and generate products, using their own observations and/or observations of other services, relevant for geodesy and for other sciences and applications. Accuracy and robustness of products, quality control, timeliness, and state of the art quality are the essential aspects of the Services. Such a Service shall set up its Terms of Reference as appropriate to accomplish its mission. Each Service works autonomously. However, at least one official IAG representative shall be a voting member of the Service's directing/governing board, and the IAG Executive Committee shall approve its Terms of Reference. Services shall collaborate on a scientific basis with the Commissions, establish joint Service / Commission Projects, and help compile the Commissions' list of themes for Study Groups. Services are linked to at least one of the Commissions and may be also linked to other scientific organizations, such as the International Astronomical Union (IAU) or the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical data analysis Services (FAGS).

Services represent the Association in all domains related to the services' products.

At the present time the Association related Services are the following: 

  1. International GPS Service
  2. International VLBI Service
  3. International Laser Ranging Service
  4. International Gravimetric Bureau
  5. International Geoid Service
  6. International Center for Earth Tides
  7. International Earth Rotation Service
  8. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level
  9. Time Section of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures 

The Services shall have a total of three representatives in the IAG Executive Committee. They represent the interests of all services. Their election procedure is defined in Art.2.8 c). 

1.4 IAG PROJECTS are of a broad scope and of highest interest and importance for the entire field of geodesy. These Projects serve as the flagships of the Association for a long time period (decade or longer).

The IAG Executive Committee shall appoint planning groups for the creation of each IAG Project. Each IAG Project shall have a Project Steering Committee consisting of the following membership:

  1. The project chair appointed by the IAG Executive Committee
  2. One member from each Commission appointed by the Commissions' Steering Committees
  3. Two Members-at-Large proposed by the members of the Project Steering Committee and approved by the IAG Executive Committee
  4. Chairs of the IAG Project sub-groups (if any)

Guidelines for the establishment of IAG Projects are established by the Executive Committee and published in the Geodesist's Handbook. 

1.5 The COMMUNICATION AND OUTREACH BRANCH provides the Association with communication, educational/public information and outreach links to the membership, to other scientific Associations and to the world as a whole. 

1.5.1 The RESPONSIBILITIES of the Communication and Outreach Branch shall include the following tasks: 

  1. Promote the recognition and usefulness of geodesy in general and IAG in particular.
  2. Publications (newsletters)
  3. Membership development.
  4. General information service and outreach
The Communication and Outreach Branch may also assist the IAG Central Bureau, see 2.7, in the following tasks: 
  1. Maintenance of the IAG Web page.
  2. Setting up Association schools.
  3. Setting up meetings and conferences
  4. Maintaining the Bibliographic Service

The Communication and Outreach Branch has a steering committee, the president of which is elected by the Council. The IAG Executive Committee establishes the Branch on a long-term basis. Based on a Call for Participation, the responding organization(s) and the IAG Executive Committee shall negotiate the Terms of Reference and other conditions.

The General Secretary and the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Geodesy shall be ex-officio members of the Branch Steering Committee.

1.5.2 The IAG PUBLICATIONS include the Journal of Geodesy, the IAG Newsletter, the Geodesist's Handbook, the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie,", IAG Special Publications, and the IAG Symposia series.

The Association's journal is the Journal of Geodesy, hereinafter referred to as the journal. The journal is published monthly through an agreement between the Association and a publishing company, or by other arrangement approved by the Executive Committee. The terms of any agreement for publication of the journal shall be negotiated by the President and ratified by the Executive Committee.

The journal publishes peer-reviewed papers, covering the whole range of geodesy, including applications.

There shall be one Editor-in-Chief for the journal, hereinafter referred to as the Editor. An Assistant Editor-in-Chief may assist the Editor. The Editor shall be advised and assisted by a Board of Editors, hereinafter referred to as the Board. To ensure broad expertise, each of the Commissions may nominate up to three members of the journal’s editorial board.

The Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the journal. The Editor shall make the final decision on whether a refereed scientific manuscript is accepted for publication. The Editor shall keep the Executive Committee informed of the activities and status of operations of the journal.

At the time of each General Assembly (GA), the Editor shall, in consultation and agreement with the Bureau and after consideration of suggestions from the geodetic community, recommend candidates for membership on the new Board of Editors, which is to hold office for the next period. This list of candidates shall be published on the IAG web site at least two months in advance of the General Assembly. During the assembly, the current Board shall nominate the members of the new Board from those recommended. After taking office, the new Board shall nominate one, or more, Editors(s) for the next period. The Executive Committee shall approve the nomination of the Editor(s) and concurrence with the publisher will be sought. The Editor and the members of the Board, shall each hold office for one period, but may be eligible to be re-elected for one further period.

The IAG Newsletter is under the editorial responsibility of the Communication and Outreach Branch. It is to be published and distributed both in paper form and electronically.

After each General Assembly, a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy shall be published under the name of "The Geodesist's Handbook". This issue provides the actual information on the Association, including the reports of the President and Secretary General presented at the previous General Assembly, the resolutions taken at that assembly, and the Association structure for the running period, as well as relevant scientific information.

After each General Assembly, a collection of the reports by the Association components shall be published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie". This publication is supplied free of charge to the officers of the Association and to the adhering body of each member country.

Proceedings of IAG symposia may be published in the IAG Symposia Series. The series editor is the President of the Association, with the symposia convenors acting as volume editors. All manuscripts are subject to a refereeing process, and the volume editor shall make the final decision on whether a manuscript is accepted for publication.

At every General Assembly each member country is encouraged to supply either an adequate number of copies of its National Report on geodetic work done since the previous General Assembly in hard copy or a digital copy of its national report to be placed on the IAG web site. These National Reports, as far as available, are distributed by the Central Bureau of the Association in the same manner as the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie".

1.6 INTER-COMMISSION COMMITTEES shall handle well defined, important and permanent tasks involving all commissions. Each Inter-commission Committee shall have a steering committee consisting of the following membership:

  1. President appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
  2. Vice-president appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
  3. One representative from each Commission

The terms of reference for each Inter-commission Committee shall be developed by a planning group appointed by the IAG Executive Committee. The Inter-commission Committees report to the IAG Executive Committee. The Inter-Commission Committee will be reviewed every eight years.

2. The ADMINISTRATION of the IAG is handled by the Membership, the General Assembly, the Council, the Executive Committee, the Bureau, and the Assistant and Assembly Secretaries.

2.1 The MEMBERSHIP of the Association consists of Countries, Candidate Members, Individual Members and Fellows

The IAG Executive Committee, upon the recommendation of the Secretary General accepts individuals as Members. Applications for individual membership are made to the Bureau. Benefits of individual membership include: 

  1. Substantial reduction on the individual subscription rate to the Journal of Geodesy.
  2. The right to participate in the IAG election process both as a nominator and a nominee (provided IUGG laws are observed).
  3. Application to become a member of the IAG Commission of choice.
  4. Reduction of the registration fee for IAG meetings (as defined by the by-laws 3.2, 3.3)

The Executive Committee sets the suggested membership fee per annum. Donations in addition to this amount will be used for the IAG Fund in support of young scientists. Discounts and in some instances full remission can be obtained by application. Membership is terminated if the membership fee is not paid or if an application for discount or full remission has not been received one year after the fee was due. Past officers of the Association shall be eligible for appointment as Fellows and shall be invited to become such. The IAG Executive Committee makes these appointments. Persons elected as officers of the Association, or nominated as members of its components, shall automatically become Candidate Members at the next General Assembly. Persons from member countries who apply, indicating previous participation in Association activities, or providing a recommendation from their national adhering body or a recommendation from an officer or a Fellow of the Association, shall be eligible to become Candidate Members upon recommendation by the Bureau. 

2.2 The Association shall hold its own GENERAL ASSEMBLIES in conjunction with the ordinary General Assemblies of the IUGG, at the same time and in the same country. In addition the Association may hold Scientific Assemblies, independently of IUGG, generally mid-way between the ordinary General Assemblies. Before any General Assembly, the Bureau of the Association prepares detailed agendas for the Council, Executive Committee, the opening and the closing sessions. As far as the scientific work is concerned, the Executive Committee draws up the agenda. This agenda is sent to the member countries and to all the officers of the Association so as to reach them at least two months prior to the assembly. In principle, only matters on the agenda may be considered during the sessions, unless a decision to do otherwise is passed by a two-thirds majority in the Council concerning the agenda of the council, or in the Executive Committee concerning the scientific program. At each General Assembly, the President shall present a detailed report on the scientific work of the Association during his/her tenure. The Secretary General shall present a detailed report on the administrative work and on the finances of the Association for the same period. They both should submit proposals regarding work to be undertaken during the coming period, within the limits of expected resources. These reports are published in "The Geodesist's Handbook". Joint Symposia covering topics interesting two or more Associations within the Union may be arranged. At each ordinary General Assembly, the work of each Commission, each Service, the Communication and Outreach Branch, and each IAG Project shall be reported by its President / Chair. IAG Representatives report to the Executive Committee. A screening committee will be set up by the IAG President, in due time, to decide about the acceptance of scientific papers for presentation at the General Assemblies. The committee shall consist of one member of the Bureau and the Presidents of Commissions, Chairs of the Services and IAG Projects. Individual authors are responsible for the reproduction of their scientific papers. The Central Bureau prior to the meeting distributes these papers to the delegates where they are presented. They may be published in the IAG Symposia Proceedings or in the Journal of Geodesy, subject to its editorial policy, or on computer disks or on the Association's web site. 

2.3 The COUNCIL, in general, shall have the following duties:

  1. Examine questions of general scientific policy or administration, and propose actions deemed necessary. 
  2. Elect the members of the Bureau and of the Executive Committee, and the Presidents of Commissions. 
  3. Receive reports from the Secretary General and consider for approval the decisions or actions taken by the Bureau and the Executive Committee since the last Council meeting. 
  4. Appoint the three members of the ad hoc committee created for examining the finances of the Association, consider its recommendations and adopt the final budget.
  5. Consider proposals for changes in the Statutes and Bylaws.
  6. Decide on the venue of scientific assemblies.
  7. Approve the establishment of Inter-Commission Committees and IAG Projects.

The President of the Association convenes the Council. It shall meet at least once during each General Assembly, and may be convened at other times, normally coinciding with an IAG scientific assembly. 

2.4 The IAG EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, in general, shall have the following duties:

  1. Initiate actions and issue guidelines, as required, to guide the Association towards the achievement of its scientific objectives.
  2. Fill vacancies occurring between General Assemblies, in accordance with the present Statutes and Bylaws.
  3. Set up and dissolve Association components and approve their internal structure.
  4. Make recommendations to the Council on matters of general policy of the Association and on the implementation of its objectives.
  5. Appoint Fellows of the Association, upon the recommendation of the Bureau.
  6. Accept individuals as Members of the Association.
  7. Appoint planning groups for Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
  8. Establish Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
  9. Appoint an IAG Review Committee every eight years.
  10. Appoint the Assistant Secretaries of the Association.
  11. Confirm the links between Commissions and Services.
  12. Adopt the suggested membership fee
  13. Appoint the Vice-president of commissions.
  14. Appoint representatives to external bodies.

In addition, the Executive Committee has the right to establish a fund (IAG Fund) for supporting specific IAG activities as defined in the IAG Fund Rules, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook. The fund is under the direct responsibility of the President; the fund's resources are administered by the Secretary General. The Executive Committee may also establish awards for outstanding contributions to geodesy and distinguished service to the Association. The rules for the awards are published in the Geodesist's Handbook. The President of the Association convenes the Executive Committee. It shall meet at General Assemblies and its members are expected to attend the meetings of the Council, with voice but without vote. It shall also meet normally at least once a year, especially one year before the General Assembly, in order to prepare the scientific agenda and the timetable of the next General Assembly. At a meeting of the Executive Committee, no member may be represented by any other person, except a President of Commission who may be represented by the Vice-President. In order that the deliberations of the Executive Committee shall be valid, at least half of its members must be present or represented. The agenda for each meeting of the Executive Committee shall be prepared by the Bureau and sent to the members at least three months prior to the meeting.

2.5 The BUREAU, in general, shall have the following duties:

  1. Draw up the agenda of the meetings of the Council and Executive Committee.
  2. Ensure the adequate administration of the Association. It shall normally meet before each meeting of the Executive Committee.
  3. Receive applications for individual memberships.
  4. Recommend to the Executive Committee Candidate Members, individual Members, and Fellows.

2.5.1 The PRESIDENT of the Association, in general, shall have the following duties: 

  1. Provide general leadership for the Association in all matters.
  2. Convene and preside over the General Assembly and over all meetings of the Council, Executive Committee and Bureau.
  3. Represent the Association in its dealing with national or international organizations or institutions.
  4. Submit a report to the General Assembly on the scientific work of the Association during his/her tenure.

2.5.2 The VICE PRESIDENT shall act as the President whenever the President is not present or is unable to perform any of the President’s duties, and shall perform such tasks as may be assigned by the President, the Executive Committee or the Council. 

2.5.3 The SECRETARY GENERAL, shall have the following duties:

  1. Serve as secretary of the General Assembly, the Council, the Executive Committee and the Bureau; arrange for meetings of these bodies, distribute promptly the agenda and prepare and distribute the minutes of all their meetings.
  2. Director of the Central Bureau.
  3. Manage the affairs of the Association, attend to correspondence, and preserve the records.
  4. Circulate all appropriate information related to the Association.
  5. Prepare the reports of the Association's activities.
  6. Perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Bureau.

2.6 The Secretary General is also assisted by a small number of ASSISTANT SECRETARIES, one of whom is located in the same office as the Secretary General. The function of the Secretary General and the Assistant Secretaries are unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with them are repayable. ASSEMBLY SECRETARIES shall be appointed by the Council on the recommendation of the adhering body of the country in which the next Ordinary or Scientific Assembly will take place. In cooperation with the Bureau, the Assembly Secretary has responsibility for liaison with the organizers working on the preparation of the Assembly. 

2.7. To assist the Secretary General, the Association establishes the CENTRAL BUREAU, after invitation from a host country. 

2.8 ELECTIONS shall take place by mail vote before each General Assembly and should be completed one month before the assembly. 

  1. The President of the Association, after taking advice from the Executive Committee, shall appoint a Nominating Committee consisting of a Chair and three other members. The Nominating Committee, after taking advice from the adhering bodies of the member countries, officers, fellows, and members of the Association, shall normally propose at least two candidates for each position to be filled by election in the Council. Candidates shall be asked to signify their acceptance of nomination and to prepare a resume, maximum 150 words, outlining their position, research interests and activities relating to the Association. The member countries and the individual membership shall be informed of these nominations three months before the General Assembly. 
  2. During the following month further nominations can be submitted by the National Delegates. Such additional nominations shall be in writing, shall be supported by at least two members of the Council, and shall be submitted with resumes as described above to the Chair of the Nominating Committee. Delegates shall be informed of these further nominations and resumes and of their supporters. Elections shall be by mail ballot by majority vote. In this case the national delegates form the council. No person may hold more than one of the following offices at the same time: President of the Association, Vice-President, President of a Commission, President of a Service, President of the Communication and Outreach Branch, Chair of an IAG Project. 
  3. The Services' representatives to the IAG Executive Committee shall be elected as follows: The Chair of the Nominating Committee shall write to all services asking them for one nomination from each service. The Nominating Committee shall recommend normally two nominees for each of the Services’ three slots, considering appropriate scientific and national distribution. The Council will then elect the three representatives as the other Executive Committee members.

The time interval between the closures of two successive ordinary General Assemblies of the Association is called here a period.

The Vice-President is elected for one period and may not be immediately re-elected to the same office.

The President of the Association is elected for one period
The Secretary General is elected for one period initially. He/she may be re-elected for two additional periods. The same rules apply to Assistant Secretaries. A member of the IUGG Bureau or of the IUGG Finance Committee may not occupy the post of President, of Vice-President or of Secretary General of the Association. Should the position of President become vacant in the interval between two ordinary General Assemblies, his duties devolve to the Vice-President until the closure of the next ordinary General Assembly. Should the post of Secretary General become vacant, the President shall arrange without delay for the Executive Committee to elect a replacement by correspondence so as to ensure the continuity of the work of the Central Bureau. This election has effect until the closure of the next ordinary General Assembly. 

2.9 The Association shall initiate INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION in scientific work of international and interdisciplinary character. This includes the adequate participation in international programs and projects and the representation at scientific congresses, symposia etc. of organizations with related activities. The President of the Association decides on the proper participation or representation. Representatives to international programs and projects shall be appointed by the Executive Committee and shall keep the President informed on the activities, on a biannual basis. The representatives shall also prepare a report to be presented at the General Assembly. 

3. SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS relevant to IAG generally are the Scientific Symposia, Scientific Assemblies, and IAG sponsored Symposia. The latter two may take place at any time.

The IAG Newsletter shall include on a regular basis, a Calendar of IAG Symposia and other scientific meetings organized or sponsored by the IAG or its components.

The Executive Committee shall appoint an official IAG Representative for each of the scientific meetings to be governed by these rules. The representative is obliged to remind the organizers to obey the rules for scientific meetings and to report back to the Executive Committee.

3.1 SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA take place at IAG General Assemblies and generally shall be organized Association component by Association component (including the sub-components) under the chairmanship of the Chairs of the components. The study of some questions may require joint meetings of several components under a chair, appointed by the Executive Committee. A committee consisting of the component Chairs shall decide on the agenda and on the inclusion of scientific presentations. At each General Assembly Joint Scientific Symposia covering topics of interest to two or more Associations within the IUGG and/or other international scientific organizations may be arranged. Though the IAG may be asked to act as convenor or co-convenor, these symposia shall follow the rules issued by the IUGG. The IAG may participate also in joint symposia at any other time outside of the General Assemblies obeying the same procedures. The arrangement of a scientific symposium shall be subject to the usual approval procedure provided by the Geodesist's Handbook. 

3.2 SCIENTIFIC ASSEMBLIES are generally held at mid-way between the General Assemblies and shall consist of a group of component meetings and/or a group of Scientific Symposia, held at the same time and place. 

3.3 The IAG may sponsor a symposium covering broad parts of geodesy and having large attendance at any suitable time outside the General or Scientific Assemblies, and shall call it an IAG SPONSORED SYMPOSIUM, provided the following conditions are fulfilled: 

  1. One or more Association component or sub-component shall sponsor it or at least two Study Groups.
  2. Host organization of the symposium shall accept a Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
  3. The symposium shall be open to all bona-fide scientists in accordance with the ICSU rules.
  4. The symposium proceedings shall be published within 6-8 months. 

The SOC shall be responsible for a high scientific level of the symposium. A Local Organizing Committee (LOC) shall take care of the organization and logistics. Applications for approval of an IAG Symposium should be submitted to the Secretary General at least two years before the intended date of the meeting. Detailed guidelines for such applications, and the expectations from the SOC and LOC, may be found in the Geodesist's Handbook quoted above. 

4. The FINANCES of the Association derive from the following sources:

  1. Contributions of IUGG member countries of which a proportion, determined by the IUGG Council on recommendation of its Finance Committee, is paid to the Association by the Treasurer of the union.
  2. Sale of publications.
  3. IAG Fund collected from individual contributions for specific purposes.
  4. Membership fees.
  5. Other sources e.g., grants, interests, and funds remaining after a symposium.

The Secretary General is responsible to the Bureau and to the Council for managing the funds in accordance with the Statutes and Bylaws, with the decisions of the Council, and with the recommendations of the IUGG Finance Committee.

The Secretary General alone shall be responsible for control of the financial operations of the Association.

At each General Assembly of the Association the budget proposal for the next period shall be presented by the Secretary General and submitted for approval to the Council. The budget as approved by the Council shall be implemented by the Secretary General.

During the next General Assembly, the Council shall examine all expenditures to ensure that they were in accordance with the proposed budget previously approved. The Council shall appoint an ad hoc committee for carrying out this examination in detail.

In addition, these accounts shall be audited by a qualified accountant and shall then be reported to the IUGG Treasurer, as prescribed in Article 20 of the IUGG Bylaws.

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