IAG Bylaws adopted by the IAG Council
at the XXVIII IUGG General Assembly in Berlin, Germany, July 2023
1. Definition of Terms
(a) Commissions represent major fields of activity in accordance with the IAG Statutes.
(b) Inter-commission Committees (ICCs) shall be responsible for well-defined, important and permanent tasks involving all Commissions.
(c) Services collect and analyze observations to generate products relevant to geodesy and other sciences and applications.
(d) The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) works with the other IAG components in advancing our understanding of the dynamic Earth system by quantifying our planet’s changes in space and time.
(e) IAG Projects are flagship long-term projects of broad scope and of significant interest for the entire field of geodesy.
(f) The Communication and Outreach Branch (COB) provides the Association with communication, educational/public information and outreach links to the membership, to other scientific Associations and to the world as a whole.
(g) Association subcomponent or subcomponents are long-term or short-term structures created by the IAG or one or more of its components.
(h) Long-term subcomponents comprise IAG Projects (broad in scope and of high interest for the entire field of geodesy), Sub-commissions and Commission Projects which are expected to operate for several periods.
(i) Short-term subcomponents refer to Study Groups and Working Groups which are established for a maximum term of one period.
(j) Steering Committee means a group of elected or appointed IAG officers who oversee the work of Commissions, Inter-commission Committees (see 17), IAG Projects (see 16), and the Communication and Outreach Branch (see 18).
(k) Period means the interval of time between the closures of two successive IAG General Assemblies.
2. Responsibilities of Association Components
(a) The scientific work of the IAG is performed by Commissions, Inter-commission Committees, IAG Projects, Services and GGOS.
(b) The responsibilities of the IAG Components are determined by the IAG Council on the recommendation of the IAG Executive Committee.
(c) Components are expected to interact with each other where their activities are inter-related.
(d) Each Component may set up subcomponents and is responsible for the activities of those subcomponents.
3. General Responsibilities of Component Presidents or Chairs, and Steering Committees
(a) Each Component shall have a President or Chair who will lead a Steering Committee.
(b) The Component’s President or Chair is responsible for the scientific development within the Component's field of interest. The Component’s President or Chair shall:
- coordinate the work of the subcomponents;
- keep the officers of the Component as well as the IAG Bureau and IAG Executive Committee informed of the Component's activities on an annual basis;
- collect reports of the subcomponents two months before each IAG General and Scientific Assembly for publication in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie";
- receive suggestions for new subcomponents, and suggestions for continuation of existing ones; and
- recommend changes to subcomponents to the IAG Executive Committee for approval.
(c) The Component’s Steering Committee is expected to meet at least once per year and at least once during each IAG General Assembly.
(d) The Component’s Steering Committee shall review at one of its meetings (usually the IAG General Assembly, or the IAG Scientific Assembly):
- the activities of the subcomponents over the past period;
- the structure of the subcomponents; and
- the programs for the forthcoming period for those subcomponents that will be recommended for continuation.
(e) The Component’s Steering Committee shall inform the Secretary General about all relevant issues.
(f) The Component’s Steering Committee may organize scientific and organizational meetings and workshops provided that they are readily distinguished as being of a more limited scope than IAG Scientific Symposia or IAG Sponsored Symposia as described in Bylaws 28 and 29.
4. Commission Responsibilities
Commissions shall promote the advancement of science, technology and international cooperation in their field. They establish the necessary links with sister disciplines and with the relevant Services. Commissions shall represent the Association in all scientific domains related to their field of geodesy.
5. Commission Steering Committee
(a) The Commission Steering Committee shall be established at each IAG General Assembly, following the election of the Association officers.
(b) The Steering Committee shall have the following voting members:
- Commission President.
- Commission Vice President.
- Chairs of the Sub-commissions and Commission Projects.
- Up to three representatives of the Services relevant to the work of the Commission.
- Up to two Members-at-Large to balance geographical and member country representation.
(c) The Steering Committee may also have non-voting members who represent organizations external to the IAG, as appropriate.
6. Appointment of Commission Officers
(a) The Commission President shall be elected by the IAG Council for one period without reappointment, except where exceptional circumstances justify reappointment.
(b) The Commission Vice President shall be appointed by the IAG Executive Committee for one period without reappointment, except where exceptional circumstances justify reappointment.
(c) Chairs of the Sub-commissions and Commission Projects shall be nominated by the Commission President and Vice President within two months following the General Assembly.
(d) The representatives of the Services shall be appointed by the Commission President and Vice President upon proposal of the Services.
(e) The representatives of the external organizations shall be appointed by the Commission President and Vice President upon proposal of the external organizations.
(f) The Members-at-Large shall be nominated by the Commission President and Vice President within two months following the IAG General Assembly.
(g) The appointments of Members-at-Large and Chairs of Sub-commissions and Commission Projects take effect on approval of the nominations by the IAG Executive Committee.
7. Tasks of Commission Steering Committee
The Commission Steering Committee is subject to the general responsibilities of component Steering Committees in Bylaw 3(c), 3(d), 3(e), and 3(f). In particular, its tasks are to:
(a) Review the Commission's field of interests and objectives.
(b) Liaise with the other IAG Commissions, the Inter-commission Committees, and with similar organizations outside the IAG, as appropriate.
(c) Foster active participation of early career geodesists and geodesists from under-represented countries.
(d) Coordinate and review the work of its components and report at the time of the Scientific Assembly to the IAG Executive Committee on the progress and performance of the components.
(e) Encourage and organize Commission and interdisciplinary symposia and/or sessions at major geodesy related international meetings.
(f) Maintain a Commission website and email service.
(g) As requested, nominate editors for the Journal of Geodesy.
8. Current Commissions
On the approval of these Bylaws, there shall be four Commissions with areas of scientific responsibility as outlined below:
(1) Commission 1: Reference Frames
(a) Establishment, maintenance, improvement of the geodetic reference frames.
(b) Advanced terrestrial and space geodetic techniques for the above purposes.
(c) International collaboration for the definition and deployment of networks of terrestrially-based space geodetic observatories.
(d) Theory and coordination of astrometric observation for reference frame purposes.
(e) Collaboration with space geodesy/reference frame related international services, agencies and organizations.
(2) Commission 2: Gravity Field
(a) Terrestrial, marine, and airborne gravimetry.
(b) Satellite gravity and altimetry observations.
(c) Gravity field modelling.
(d) Time-variable gravity field.
(e) Geoid determination and height systems.
(f) Satellite orbit modelling and determination.
(3) Commission 3: Earth Rotation and Geodynamics
(a) Earth orientation (UT1 and LOD, polar motion, precession-nutation).
(b) Earth tides and tidal loading.
(c) Crustal deformation, seismo-geodesy, volcano-geodesy and seafloor-geodesy.
(d) Earth’s response to non-tidal surface loading (including glacial isostatic adjustment).
(e) Sea level changes over various timescales.
(4) Commission 4: Positioning and Applications
(a) Terrestrial and satellite-based positioning systems development, including sensor and information fusion.
(b) Navigation and guidance of platforms.
(c) Interferometric laser and radar applications.
(d) Applications of geodetic positioning using geodetic networks, including monitoring of deformations.
(e) Applications of geodesy to engineering.
(f) Atmospheric investigations using space geodetic techniques.
9. Commission Subcomponents and Joint Subcomponents
(a) Commission subcomponents are Sub-commissions, Commission Projects, Study Groups, and Working Groups, which all belong to one Commission.
(b) If more than one component is involved in a subcomponent, the term “joint subcomponent” will be used, e.g. Joint Sub-commission, Joint Commission Project, Joint Study Group, Joint Working Group.
10. Sub-commissions and Joint Sub-commissions
(a) A Sub-commission may be set up for topics where the Commission plays a leading or coordinating role.
(b) Where a topic relates to the scientific responsibilities of more than one IAG component, a Joint Sub-commission shall be established under the lead of one Commission.
(c) A Sub-commission is expected to be established for several periods.
(d) Sub-commissions are established and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation from the Commission President.
(e) A proposal to the IAG Executive Committee for a Joint Sub-commission requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing components.
11. Commission Projects and Joint Projects
(a) A Commission Project may be established when a new scientific method or a new technique is being developed, or when it seems appropriate to apply an existing technique to a specific geographic area where international collaboration is required.
(b) Where a topic for a Commission Project relates to the scientific responsibilities of more than one Commission, or a Commission and a Service, a Joint Commission Project shall be established under the lead of one Commission.
(c) A Commission Project is established for one period and may be extended for another period subject to a positive review.
(d) Commission Projects are established, extended and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation from the Commission President.
(e) A proposal to the IAG Executive Committee for a Joint Commission Project requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing components.
12. Inter-commission Committees (ICCs)
(a) Inter-commission Committees shall be responsible for well-defined, important and permanent tasks involving all Commissions.
(b) Each ICC shall have a Steering Committee, which shall include the following members:
- President appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
- Vice President appointed by the IAG Executive Committee on the recommendation of the President.
- One representative appointed by each Commission.
(c) The Terms of Reference for each ICC shall be developed by a planning group appointed by the IAG Executive Committee, for approval by the Executive Committee.
(d) ICCs will be established for at least two periods and shall be reviewed by the IAG Executive Committee every eight years.
(e) ICCs shall report to the IAG Executive Committee.
(f) The President of an ICC shall hold office for one period, but is eligible to be re-elected for one further period.
12.1 Inter-commission Committee for Climate Research (ICCC)
The mission of the ICCC is to interact and collaborate with other IAG components, in particular the Commissions and GGOS, in order to further the objectives of the ICCC:
- to be the international focal point of geodesy for climate research;
- to encourage and initiate activities to intensify the interaction between geodesy and climate science; and
- to monitor research developments related to the use of geodetic data for climate research.
12.2 Inter-Commission Committee on Marine Geodesy (ICCM)
The ICCM mission is to collaborate and interoperate with the IAG Commissions and GGOS to realize the objectives of ICCM:
- to close the gaps between theory and applications in marine geodesy;
- to connect the seafloor geodetic network component to the ITRF;
- to develop multi-marine geodetic observations; and
- to establish international conventions for marine geodetic data processing and standards.
12.3 The Inter-commission Committee on Theory (ICCT)
The mission of the ICCT is to interact and collaborate with other IAG components, in particular the Commissions and GGOS, in order to further the objectives of the ICCT:
- to be the international focal point of theoretical geodesy;
- to encourage and initiate activities to further geodetic theory in all branches of geodesy; and
- to monitor research developments in geodetic modelling.
13. IAG Services
(a) IAG Services (see Bylaw 14) generate products, using their own observations and/or observations of other services, relevant for geodesy and for other sciences and applications. Accuracy and robustness of products, quality control, timeliness, and state-of-the-art quality are the essential aspects of the Services.
(b) Each IAG Service shall define its Terms of Reference as appropriate to accomplish its mission and shall submit the Terms of Reference to the IAG Executive Committee for approval.
(c) Each IAG Service shall have an IAG representative, appointed by the IAG Executive Committee, as a voting member of its directing or governing board.
(d) IAG Services are linked to at least one of the Commissions and may be also linked to other scientific organizations, such as the ISC World Data System (WDS) or the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
(e) IAG Services should collaborate on a scientific basis with the Commissions, establish Joint Commission Projects and Joint Study Groups and help compile the Commissions’ list of themes for Study Groups.
(f) Three representatives shall be elected in accordance with Bylaw 39 to the IAG Executive Committee to serve the interests of all Services.
(g) On any matter relating to the products of a Service, the Service shall represent the IAG.
14. Current IAG Services
There are twelve IAG Services at the time of adoption of these Bylaws:
(a) International Gravimetric Bureau (BGI)
(b) International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM)
(c) International Digital Elevation Models Service (IDEMS)
(d) International DORIS Service (IDS)
(e) International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS)
(f) International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service (IGETS)
(g) International Gravity Field Service (IGFS)
(h) International GNSS Service (IGS)
(i) International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS)
(j) International Service for the Geoid (ISG)
(k) International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS)
(l) Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)
15. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS)
(a) GGOS is IAG’s observing system to monitor the geodetic and global geodynamic properties of the Earth as a system.
(b) The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) works with all IAG components, such as the Services, the Commissions, the Inter-Commission Committees and the Projects, to provide unique, mutually consistent, and easily accessible geodetic products (including the geodetic reference frames and gravity field models) and relevant geodetic constants for science and society. In addition, GGOS undertakes activities directed at improving the geodetic infrastructure that underpins the geodetic products. Further, GGOS works in concert with the Commissions, the ICCs and the Projects concerning new developments, and keeps other IAG components informed of the work of GGOS.
(c) GGOS operates under its own Terms of Reference, defined by the GGOS Governing Board and approved by the IAG Executive Committee. The GGOS procedures for the nomination and election of its Officers are specified in its Terms of Reference.
(d) The GGOS President is elected by the IAG Executive Committee from a slate of candidates nominated by the GGOS Governing Board and the IAG Executive Committee. The President is appointed for one period, which may be renewed once.
16. The Communication and Outreach Branch (COB)
(a) The function of the Communication and Outreach Branch (COB) is to provide the Association with communication, educational/public information and outreach links to the membership, to other scientific organizations and to the world as a whole.
(b) The responsibilities of the COB shall include the following:
- Promote the recognition and usefulness of geodesy in general and the IAG in particular.
- Publications (such as newsletters) and social media platforms.
- Membership development.
- General information service and outreach.
(c) The COB shall also assist the IAG Secretary General in the following tasks as required:
- Maintenance of the IAG website.
- Setting up Association schools.
- Organizing meetings and conferences.
(d) The IAG Executive Committee establishes the COB on a long-term basis by issuing a Call for Participation. The responding organization(s) and the IAG Executive Committee shall then negotiate the Terms of Reference and other conditions.
(e) The President of the COB shall be elected by the IAG Council after consideration of a COB proposal.
(f) Major decisions related to the operations of the COB shall be made by a Steering Committee consisting of the following voting members:
- COB President.
- IAG Secretary General.
- Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Geodesy.
- Editor-in-Chief of the IAG Symposia Series.
- Up to five other members appointed by the IAG Executive Committee on the recommendation of the President of the COB.
17. IAG Projects
(a) IAG Projects are flagship long-term projects of broad scope and of significant interest for the entire field of geodesy.
(b) The establishment of an IAG Project shall be carried out by a planning group appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
(c) The Project Steering Committee shall have the following voting members:
- The Project Chair appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
- One member from each Commission appointed by each Commission’s Steering Committee.
- Two Members-at-Large proposed by the members of the Project Steering Committee identified in clause (i) and (ii) above and approved by the IAG Executive Committee.
- Chairs of the IAG Project Working Groups (if any).
- Representatives of other IAG components, as appropriate.
(d) IAG Project subcomponents are known as Working Groups.
18. Study Groups, Working Groups, Joint Study Groups and Joint Working Groups
(a) A Study Group or Working Group may be established at any time to address clearly defined well-focused scientific topics of limited scope within the field of the Component. A Study Group is dealing with more theoretical issues and a Working Group with more practical realizations.
(b) Where a topic for a Study Group or Working Group relates to the scientific responsibilities of more than one Component, a Joint Study Group or a Joint Working Group shall be established.
(c) A Study Group or Working Group is established for a maximum of one period.
(d) Study Groups and Working Groups, including the position of the group Chair, are established and terminated by the IAG Executive Committee upon recommendation of the Component President.
(e) A proposal to the IAG Executive Committee for a Joint Study Group or Joint Working Group requires the recommendation of the Presidents of all contributing components.
(f) The Chair of a Study Group or Working Group is responsible for initiating and directing its work and appointing its members.
(g) Study Group and Working Group membership should be balanced so as to reflect international cooperation in its subject.
(h) A Study Group or Working Group may have at most 20 full members and an unlimited number of correspondent members.
(i) The Chair of each Study Group or Working Group shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each IAG General Assembly.
(j) The Chair of each Study Group or Working Group shall report annually to its members and the Commission Steering Committee, on results achieved and outstanding problems.
19. IAG Publications
(a) The IAG publications include the Journal of Geodesy, the IAG Symposia Series, the Geodesist's Handbook, the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie," the IAG Newsletter, and IAG Special Publications.
(b) The Association's journal is the Journal of Geodesy, hereinafter referred to as the Journal. The Journal is published monthly through an agreement between the Association and a publishing company, or by other arrangement approved by the IAG Executive Committee. The terms of any agreement for publication of the Journal shall be negotiated by the President of the Communications and Outreach Branch and ratified by the IAG Executive Committee.
(c) The Journal publishes peer-reviewed papers, covering the whole range of geodesy.
(d) After each IAG General Assembly, a special issue of the Journal shall be published under the name of "The Geodesist's Handbook". This issue provides the actual information on the Association, including the reports of the IAG President and Secretary General presented at the previous IAG General Assembly, the resolutions taken at that assembly, and the Association structure listing all components and subcomponents for the running period, rules for the IAG Fund, IAG Awards and for the conduct of scientific meetings as well as relevant scientific information.
(e) The IAG Symposia Series publishes peer-reviewed papers related to presentations made at IAG Symposia and/or IAG Sponsored Symposia, provided that sufficient number of papers are submitted and accepted for publication.
(f) After each IAG General Assembly, a collection of the reports by the Association components shall be published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie". This publication is supplied free of charge to the officers of the Association and to the adhering body of each member country.
(g) At every IAG General Assembly each member country is encouraged to submit a National Report on geodetic work done since the previous General Assembly to be placed on the IAG website.
(h) The IAG Newsletter is under the editorial responsibility of the Communication and Outreach Branch. It should be published on the IAG website and distributed to members electronically.
20. Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board
(a) There shall be one Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Geodesy, hereinafter referred to as the Journal Editor. An Assistant Editor-in-Chief may assist the Journal Editor. The Journal Editor shall be advised and assisted by an Editorial Board. To ensure broad expertise, each of the Commissions may nominate up to three members of the Editorial Board.
(b) The Journal Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the Journal. The Journal Editor or the Assistant Editor-in-Chief shall make the final decision on whether a refereed scientific manuscript is accepted for publication. The Journal Editor shall keep the IAG Executive Committee informed of the activities and status of operations of the Journal.
(c) Nine months before each IAG General Assembly, the IAG Secretary General shall establish a search committee for the Journal Editor and the Assistant Editor for the next period. The search committee will include at least the IAG Secretary General and one member of the Editorial Board. In case that the Journal Editor is not eligible to be re-elected for one further period, he/she will also be a member of the search committee. Three months before the IAG General assembly, the search committee will select the candidate Journal Editor and the candidate Assistant Editor for the next period.
(d) Three months before each IAG General Assembly, the Journal Editor, in consultation with the IAG Bureau, shall recommend a preliminary list of candidates for the new Editorial Board. This list shall be published on the IAG website at least two months in advance of the IAG General Assembly to solicit additional nominations for the Editorial Board from the IAG Components, Members, Fellows, Honorary Offices, and Council.
(e) At the IAG General Assembly, the current Editorial Board in consultation with the candidate Journal Editor and the candidate Assistant Editor shall select the members of the new Editorial Board from those recommended. After taking office, the IAG Executive Committee shall approve the new Journal Editor, the new Assistant Editor, and the Editorial Board for the next period.
(f) The Journal Editor, the Assistant Editor, and the members of the Editorial Board shall each hold office for one period, but are eligible to be re-elected for one further period.
(g) There shall be one Editor-in-Chief for the IAG Symposia Series, hereinafter referred to as the Series Editor. He/she is appointed by the IAG Executive Committee for one period. An assistant Editor-in-Chief may also be appointed.
(h) The Series Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the IAG Symposia Series. On the recommendation of the volume editor(s), the Series Editor shall make the final decision on whether a refereed scientific manuscript is accepted for publication. The Series Editor shall keep the IAG Executive Committee informed of the activities and status of the IAG Symposia Series.
(i) Each volume of the IAG Symposia Series may have additional Volume Editors.
21. IAG Individual Membership
(a) Individuals engaged in geodesy, can become individual members of the IAG on application and payment of the membership fee.
(b) Applications for individual membership are submitted to the IAG Secretary General.
(c) The decision on the membership application shall be made by the IAG Bureau.
(d) Benefits of membership include:
- Reduction in the individual subscription rate to the Journal of Geodesy.
- The right to participate in the IAG election process both as a nominator and a nominee.
- Upon application, correspondent membership in a Sub-commission or Study Group of choice.
- Reduction in the registration fee for IAG meetings as set under Bylaws 25(i), 26(d) and 27(c).
(e) The membership fee per annum is set by the IAG Executive Committee.
(f) In individual cases, the Secretary General may consider a discount or full remission of membership fees on application by the member.
(g) Where a member provides a donation in excess of the membership fee, the excess shall be assigned to the IAG Fund.
(h) Membership is terminated if the membership fee is not paid or if an application for discount or full remission has not been received one year after the fee was due.
22. Honorary Officers, Fellows
(a) The IAG Executive Committee may appoint a merited past IAG President as Honorary President or a merited IAG Secretary General as Honorary Secretary General.
(b) The IAG Executive Committee may appoint past officers of the IAG as Fellows.
23. IAG Fund
The IAG Executive Committee may establish an IAG Fund for supporting specific IAG activities as defined in the IAG Fund Rules, published in the Geodesist's Handbook. The Fund is under the direct responsibility of the President. The Fund's resources are administered by the Secretary General.
24. IAG Awards
The IAG Executive Committee may establish Awards for outstanding contributions to geodesy and distinguished service to the IAG. The rules for the awards are to be published in “The Geodesist's Handbook”.
25. Administration of the IAG General Assemblies
(a) The IAG General Assembly will be held at the same time and at the same place as the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) General Assembly.
(b) Before any IAG General Assembly, the IAG Bureau shall prepare detailed agendas for the IAG Council meetings, IAG Executive Committee meetings, and the opening and closing sessions.
(c) The IAG Executive Committee shall prepare the agenda for the scientific program. Joint Symposia covering topics of interest to two or more IUGG Associations may be arranged.
(d) The agendas developed according to (b) and (c) above are sent to the member countries and to all officers of the Association so as to reach them at least two months prior to the IAG General Assembly. In principle, only matters on the agenda may be considered during the sessions, unless a decision to do otherwise is passed by a two-thirds majority of the IAG Council.
(e) At each IAG General Assembly, the IAG President shall present a report on the scientific work of the Association during their tenure. The IAG Secretary General shall present a report on the administrative work and on the finances of the Association for the same period. The President and Secretary General should include in their reports proposals for work to be undertaken during the coming period, within the limits of expected resources. These reports shall be published in "The Geodesist's Handbook".
(f) At each IAG General Assembly, the work of each Commission, each Inter-commission Committee, each Service, the Global Geodetic Observing System, the Communication and Outreach Branch, and each IAG Project shall be reported on by its President or Chair. IAG Representatives to other scientific bodies shall report to the IAG Executive Committee.
26. Scientific Meetings
(a) Scientific meetings of the IAG are:
- the Scientific Symposia held during an IAG General Assembly;
- Scientific Assemblies, including IAG Scientific Symposia; and
- IAG Sponsored Symposia.
(b) The IAG Newsletter shall include a calendar of IAG Symposia and other scientific meetings organized or sponsored by the IAG or its components.
(c) The IAG Executive Committee shall appoint an IAG Scientific Meeting Representative for each of the scientific meetings other than the General Assembly and the Scientific Assembly to be governed by these Bylaws. The representative is obliged to remind the organizers to adhere to the Bylaws for scientific meetings and to report back to the IAG Executive Committee.
(d) A reduced registration fee shall be offered for individual members in accordance with Bylaw 21(d) (iv).
27. IAG Scientific Assemblies
(a) IAG Scientific Assemblies are held in between two IAG General Assemblies and shall consist of a group of component meetings and/or a group of scientific symposia, held at the same time and place.
(b) A reduced registration fee shall be offered for individual members in accordance with Bylaw 21(d)(iv).
28. IAG Scientific Symposia
(a) Scientific symposia take place at the IAG General Assembly and the IAG Scientific Assembly. In general, they shall be organized by IAG components and subcomponents, and be led by their respective Presidents or Chairs.
(b) The study of some questions may require joint meetings of several components under a Chair, appointed by the IAG Executive Committee. A committee consisting of the component Chairs shall decide on the agenda and on the inclusion of scientific presentations.
(c) At each IUGG General Assembly, Joint Scientific Symposia covering topics of interest to two or more Associations within the IUGG and/or other international scientific organizations may be convened. Though the IAG may be asked to act as convenor or co-convenor, these symposia shall follow the rules established by the IUGG. The IAG may participate also in joint symposia at any other time outside of the IAG General Assembly and governed by the same procedures.
(d) The planning of a scientific symposium shall be subject to the usual approval procedure provided by “The Geodesist's Handbook”.
29. IAG Sponsored Symposia
(a) The IAG may sponsor a symposium covering broad parts of geodesy and having large attendance at any suitable time outside the IAG General Assemblies or IAG Scientific Assemblies, and shall call it an IAG Sponsored Symposium, provided the following conditions are fulfilled:
- One or more IAG components or subcomponents, or at least two Study Groups, shall sponsor it.
- Host organization of the symposium shall accept an IAG representative in the Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) appointed by the IAG Executive Committee.
- The symposium shall be open to all bona-fide scientists in accordance with the International Science Council (ISC) rules.
(b) The SOC appointed under Bylaw 29(a)(ii) shall be responsible for the quality of science of the symposium being at a high level. A Local Organizing Committee (LOC) shall be responsible for the organization and logistics.
(c) Applications for approval of an IAG Symposium should be submitted to the Secretary General at least one year before the intended date of the meeting.
30. International Cooperation
(a) The IAG may participate in joint bodies of the IUGG and other scientific organizations, especially those belonging to the ISC.
(b) The IAG shall initiate international cooperation in scientific work of international and interdisciplinary character. This includes the adequate participation in international programs and projects and the representation at scientific congresses, symposia, etc., of organizations with related activities.
(c) Representatives to international programs and projects shall be appointed by the IAG Executive Committee and shall inform the IAG Executive Committee on the activities, on a biannual basis. The representatives shall also prepare a report for presentation at the IAG General Assembly.
(d) The IAG Components shall have close cooperation with inter-governmental organizations responsible for services and scientific products of particular interest to the Association (e.g. BIPM, ISO, UNOOSA/ ICG, UN-GGIM).
31. Responsibilities of the IAG Council
(a) In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG Council shall:
- Examine questions of general scientific policy or administration, and propose actions deemed necessary.
- Elect the voting members of the IAG Executive Committee, with the exception of the GGOS President (Bylaw 15(d)) and the ICC Presidents, (Bylaw 17(b(i))).
- Receive reports from the Secretary General and consider for approval the decisions or actions taken by the IAG Bureau and the IAG Executive Committee since the last IAG Council meeting.
- Establish and dissolve IAG components.
- Appoint the three members of the ad hoc (audit) committee created for examining the finances of the IAG, consider its recommendations and adopt the final budget.
- Consider proposals for changes in the IAG Statutes and Bylaws.
- Decide on the venue of the next IAG Scientific Assembly.
- Approve the establishment of Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
(b) IAG Council meetings shall be convened by the IAG President, and shall meet at least once during each IAG General Assembly. The IAG Council may be convened at other times, normally coinciding with the IAG Scientific Assembly. If circumstances do not allow an in-person meeting of the Council, a virtual meeting is also possible.
32. Responsibilities of the IAG Executive Committee
(a) In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG Executive Committee shall:
- Initiate actions and issue guidelines, as required, to guide the IAG towards the achievement of its scientific objectives.
- Fill vacancies occurring between IAG General Assemblies, in accordance with the Statutes and Bylaws.
- Approve the internal structure of IAG components.
- Make recommendations to the IAG Council on matters of general policy of the IAG and on the implementation of its objectives.
- Appoint Honorary Officers and Fellows of the IAG, upon the recommendation of the IAG Bureau.
- Appoint planning groups for Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
- Establish Inter-commission Committees and IAG Projects.
- Appoint a Committee, known as the Cassinis Committee, for reviewing and updating the IAG Statutes and Bylaws when deemed necessary.
- Confirm the Assistant Secretaries (if any) of the IAG.
- Confirm the links between Commissions and Services.
- Approve the level of the membership fee.
- Appoint the Vice President of each Commission, the President of GGOS, and the President of each ICC.
- Appoint representatives to external bodies.
(b) IAG Executive Committee meetings shall be convened by the IAG President. It shall meet at IAG General Assemblies and its members are expected to attend the meetings of the IAG Council, with voice but without vote. It shall also meet normally at least once a year, especially one year before the IAG General Assembly, in order to prepare the scientific agenda and timetable of the next IAG General Assembly. IAG Executive Committee meetings can be held in person or virtually.
(c) At a meeting of the IAG Executive Committee, no member may be represented by any other person, except by the corresponding Vice Presidents or Vice Chairs of the IAG components represented in the Executive Committee. In order that the deliberations of the IAG Executive Committee shall be valid, a quorum of at least half of its members must be present or represented.
(d) The agenda for each meeting of the IAG Executive Committee shall be prepared by the IAG Bureau and sent to the members at least two months prior to the meeting.
33. Responsibilities of the IAG Bureau
(a) In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG Bureau shall:
- Draw up the agenda of the meetings of the IAG Council and IAG Executive Committee and send these to the members at least two months prior to the meeting.
- Ensure the adequate administration of the IAG.
- Receive applications for individual memberships and accept individuals as members of the IAG.
- Recommend Honorary Officers and Fellows to the IAG Executive Committee.
(b) The IAG Bureau shall normally meet before each meeting of the IAG Executive Committee.
34. Responsibilities of the President
In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other IAG Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG President shall:
(a) Provide general leadership for the IAG in all matters.
(b) Convene and preside over the IAG General Assembly and over all meetings of the IAG Council, IAG Executive Committee and IAG Bureau.
(c) Represent the IAG in IUGG meetings and forums.
(c) Represent the IAG in its dealing with national or international organizations or institutions.
(d) Submit a report to the IAG General Assembly on the scientific work of the IAG during their tenure.
35. Responsibilities of the Vice President
In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other IAG Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG Vice President shall act on behalf of the IAG President whenever the IAG President is not present or is unable to perform any of the President’s duties, and shall perform such tasks as may be assigned by the IAG President, the IAG Executive Committee or the IAG Council.
36. Responsibilities of the Secretary General
In addition to any other functions, powers and duties provided in other IAG Statutes and Bylaws, the IAG Secretary General shall:
(a) Serve as secretary of the IAG General Assembly, the IAG Scientific Assembly, the IAG Council, the IAG Executive Committee and the IAG Bureau; and arrange for meetings of these bodies, distribute promptly the agenda and prepare and distribute the minutes of all their meetings.
(b) Act as Director of the IAG Office.
(c) Manage the affairs of the IAG, including finances as per Bylaw 42(b), attend to correspondence, and preserve the records of the IAG.
(d) Circulate all appropriate information related to the IAG.
(e) Prepare the reports of the IAG’s activities.
(f) Coordinate with the COB.
(g) Perform such other duties as may be assigned by the IAG Bureau.
(h) The function of the Secretary General is unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with the functions and duties may be reimbursed.
37. Assistant Secretaries
(a) The IAG Secretary General may be assisted by one or more Assistant Secretaries.
(b) The position(s) of Assistant Secretary is unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with the functions and duties may be reimbursed.
38. IAG Office
To assist the IAG Secretary General, the IAG establishes the IAG Office in the country in which the Secretary General resides. The IAG Executive Committee negotiates logistical and financial support with the host country or institution.
39. Procedure for Nomination and Election of IAG Officers
(a) Elections shall take place by electronic voting before each IAG General Assembly and should be completed at least two months before the assembly.
(b) The IAG President, after taking advice from the IAG Executive Committee, shall appoint a Nominating Committee consisting of a Chair and three other members.
(c) The Nominating Committee, after taking advice from the Council Delegates, the Officers, Fellows, and Individual members of the IAG, shall normally propose at least two candidates for each position to be filled by election of the IAG Council. Candidates shall be asked to signify their acceptance of nomination and to prepare a short resume, outlining their position, research interests and activities relating to the IAG.
(d) The Council Delegates, Officers, Fellows and Individual members of the IAG shall be informed of these nominations at least four months before the IAG General Assembly.
(e) During the following month further nominations can be submitted by the Council Delegates. Such additional nominations shall be in writing, shall be supported by at least two Council Delegates, and shall be submitted with resumes to the Chair of the Nominating Committee.
(f) Nominations shall be checked against the eligibility criteria in Bylaw 40 by the Nominating Committee. Ineligible nominations will not be accepted and the members of the IAG Council who supported the nomination will be advised of the reason for its rejection.
(g) Delegates shall be informed of these further eligible nominations and resumes and of their supporters.
(h) The Chair of the Nominating Committee shall write to all Services asking them for nominations from each Service for the Service representatives on the IAG Executive Committee. The Nominating Committee shall recommend a minimum of two nominees for each of the Services’ three positions, considering appropriate scientific and geographic distribution. The procedure for seeking additional nominations in subclause (e) above does not apply to these positions.
(i) If candidates have been nominated for more than one position, they will be asked prior to the election to make a decision for which position they will allow their name to stand.
(j) Elections shall be by electronic ballot. The winner must receive an outright majority (number of votes being greater than the total combined votes of the other candidates). If there are three or more candidates for a position and no candidate has an outright majority, then the top two ranked candidates will be retained and a second round of votes conducted to elect the winner. Ties will be broken by the IAG President’s vote.
(k) The Members-at-Large shall be elected in a subsequent round after the other members of the IAG Executive Committee have been elected, in order to fulfil the condition of geographical, gender and organizational balance (see Statute 12a).
40. Eligibility & Terms of Office
(a) No person may hold more than one of the following offices at the same time: IAG President, Vice President, Secretary General, IAG immediate Past President, President of a Commission, President of an Inter-commission Committee, Chair of a Service, President of GGOS, President of the COB, Executive Committee Member-at-Large, or Chair of an IAG Project.
(b) A member of the IUGG Bureau or of the IUGG Finance Committee may not occupy the post of President, Vice President or Secretary General of the IAG.
(c) The IAG President is elected for one period and may not be immediately re-elected to the same office.
(d) The Vice President is elected for one period and may not be re-elected to the same office.
(e) The Secretary General is elected for one period initially. He/she may be re-elected for up to two additional periods.
41. Extraordinary Vacancies
(a) Should the position of IAG President become vacant during the period between two IAG General Assemblies, their duties and responsibilities devolve to the Vice President until the closure of the next IAG General Assembly.
(b) Should the post of Secretary General become vacant, the IAG President shall arrange without delay for the IAG Executive Committee to propose a replacement and for the IAG Council to appoint a new Secretary General so as to ensure the continuity of the work of the IAG Office. This appointment has effect until the closure of the next IAG General Assembly and shall not be counted in the restriction of eligibility for re-election of the Secretary General under Bylaw 40(e).
(a) The Finances of the IAG derive from the following sources:
- Contributions of IUGG Adhering Bodies of which a portion, determined by the IUGG Council on recommendation of its Finance Committee, is paid to the IAG by the IUGG Treasurer.
- Sale of publications.
- IAG Fund collected from individual contributions for specific purposes.
- Membership fees.
- A portion of the registration fee charged at IAG symposia.
- Other sources, e.g. grants, interests, and funds remaining after a symposium.
(b) The Secretary General is responsible to the IAG Bureau and to the IAG Council for managing the funds in accordance with the Statutes and Bylaws. The Secretary General alone shall be responsible for the day-to-day financial operations of the IAG.
(c) At each IAG General Assembly the budget proposal for the next period shall be presented by the Secretary General and submitted for approval to the IAG Council. The budget as approved by the IAG Council shall be implemented by the Secretary General.
(d) During each IAG General Assembly, the IAG Council shall examine all expenditures during the preceding period to ensure that they were in accordance with the approved budget. This examination shall be carried out by an ad hoc (audit) committee appointed by the IAG Council; see also Bylaw 31(a)(v).
(e) In addition, the accounts shall be audited and shall then be reported to the IUGG Treasurer, as prescribed in Article 20 of the IUGG Bylaws.